Student will be asked to write four queries based on one or two tables during final practical examination to be conducted at the end of the academic session. A practical record file is required to be created during the entire academic session.
It should be duly signed by the concerned teacher on regular basis and is to be produced at the time of Final Practical Examination for evaluation.
It should include the following:. Students in group of are required to work collaboratively to develop a project using Programming and Database skills learnt during the course. The project should be an application in any one of the domains — e-Governance, e-Business and e-Learning - with GUI front-end and corresponding database at the back-end. You can also find the various important study materials, as given below, along with the 12th Class Informatics Practices textbook.
Class 12 Information Practices books. Before full implementation of a technology, a new technology is visible at the horizon. One such new technology is 4G. Change from one generation to another involves a major advancement in the technology used. Today we are living in the world of 3G. Soon, 4G will rule the mobile market. Unlike previous generations of mobile technology, 4G mobile technology will be used for internet access on computers also, and it will be totally wireless!
You can explore more about 4G technology on the internet. This is also referred to as 'Green IT'. You can explore more about Cloud Computing on the internet. Which of the following topologies is a combination of more than one topologies? Bus b. Tree c. Star d. None of these 2. Which of the following is used for wireless communication? Optical Fiber b. UTP cable c. Radio Waves d. Coaxial Cable 3.
Which of the following is not a transmission medium? Telephone Network b. Coaxial Cable c. Modem d. Microwaves 4. IP addresses of two computers on a network: a. Can be the same b. Cannot be the same c. Are not defined d. Must match with a third computer 5. Bluetooth can be used for a. Long distance communication b. Short distance communication c. In mobile phones only d. None of the above 6. Micro waves are a. Uni directional b. Omni directional c. Guided media d.
Not used for communication. Snooping is a. A threat to data security b. Not a threat to data security c. Good for laptops d. A topology 8. A repeater a. Regenerates the received signal b.
Destroys the received signal c. Can be used as a hub d. None of the above 9. Satellite links are generally used for a. PANs b. LANs c. MANs d. All of the above A domain name maps to a. A URL b. An IP address c. A website d. What is a computer network? What are its advantages?
What is meant be communication channels? Give two examples of guided media and two examples of unguided media. Setting up a LAN b. Transfer of data from a laptop to a mobile phone. Transfer of data from one mobile phone to another. Creating a remote control that can control multiple devices in a home. Very fast communication between two offices in two different countries. Communication in a hilly area g. Communication within a city and its vicinity where cost of cabling is too high. Why is a switch called an intelligent hub?
When is a repeater used in a computer network? Diagramatically show how would you connect 6 PCs, 1 server, 1 printer, and 2 scanners in a. Star topology b. Bus topology 7. Two engineers in the same room have connected their Palm-tops using bluetooth for working on a Group presentation. Out of the following, what kind of Network have they formed? What is a MAC address? Give some examples of domain names and URLs. How is a domain name different from a URL? What is domain name resolution?
Define Network security? What kind of attacks can be made on data and computer networks? List some methods which are used for network security.
Differentiate with examples wherever possible between : a. Hub and Switch d. Guided and Unguided media Write one advantage of star topology over bus topology and one advantage of bus topology over star topology. Ishika Industries has set up its new production unit and sales office at Ranchi. Suggest a cable layout of connections between the buildings so that each building is directly connected to Administrative Office.
Suggest the most suitable place i. The Administrative office of this unit is to be linked with the head office situated in Patiala Punjab. What will be the most economical way to do this? Justify your answer. Find the IP addresses of at least five computers in your school. Find the MAC addresses of at least 2 computers in your lab. Then verify their manufacturer's name on the net.
Find the layout of LAN in your school's labs. If you think some modifications can be done in the layout, note these down in your notebook. Find the name of Internet Service Provider of your school. Find the IP address of your school's web site. A school building is divided into 4 blocks A, B, C, and D. Each block is at a distance of 25m from its adjacent blocks. Each block has 1 computer lab with 15 computers each. Each block also has some other rooms maximum 10 with 1 computer each.
The school has only one internet connection. The school does not want to have any other new internet connection. It means that if the internet connection is active, any computer should be able to access it directly irrespective of whether some other computer in the school is ON or OFF.
The job of each team is to design a layout for this new network structure. Introduction Computers and internet have transformed our lives. It is next to impossible to modify the compiled version of the software. At times we feel the need to change certain features of the software but are unable to do so. In this chapter we will study about software which are developed collaboratively and they can be modified as well.
Well, have you noticed something common in all these terms. That's right! It is the word free. People often correlate this word with the cost. They think that these software are available for free. Practically, these software can be acquired at very little or no cost. But, here, "free" means freedom to use. These software can be studied, copied, redistributed freely and even modified according to one's need without seeking any kind of permission. In order to modify such software the developers also provide the source code to the users.
There do exist software which are actually "free" in the sense of price. These are known as Freeware. Lots of freeware can be downloaded from the internet for various different purposes such as currency converters, drawing graphs and charts etc. But freeware may not come with the source code.
Therefore freeware differ from free software. The focus in this chapter is on free software rather than freeware. The first formal definition of "free software" was given in by Richard Stallman, a long time member of the hacker community at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.
You can get more information on open source software from opensource. Comparable to Microsoft Office. Unix-like operating systems are built from a collection of libraries, applications and developer tools, plus a kernel to allocate resources and to talk to the hardware.
GNU is often used with the Linux kernel. Firefox - Firefox is a free and open source web browser produced by Mozilla Foundation. Open Office - Open Office is the leading open source office suite for word processing, spreadsheets, presentations, databases etc.
It is available in many languages. It stores files in open document format ODF for data interchange that is its default file format. The NetBeans community has since continued to grow, thanks to individuals and companies using and contributing to the project.
Open Source Software Security A commonly voiced concern about open source software: "If anyone can contribute to open source software, doesn't it become a free-for-all full of loopholes? Getting a change incorporated into an open source project is thus rather like getting an article published in a scientific journal. Open source software is more heavily tested than their commercial counterparts as it can be downloaded by anybody around the world and any one of them can discover a bug or security flaw and submit those reports back to the project.
Also the loop-hole or bug is available to every one and the customer can take the preventive measure accordingly and fix comes faster. Common open standards Open Document Format The Open Document format ODF is a format for office documents, such as spreadsheets, databases, presentations and word-processing documents. Open Document is a free and open format. For governments, businesses, archivists and others, it's critical to store documents in a way that can be read for years to come.
Proprietary digital file formats are typically changing with every new version of the software, so there should be some format which supports files created in any application. The data should be the center of importance not the application. Office suite applications, as always, need a file format that is designed to organize the data when it moves away from the application.
People with different machines in different places should be able to open and edit the data in a file. ODF offers an open alternative to the formats used by all of the existing Office application versions for text, spreadsheet, presentation, and other kinds of documents. Open Document's main file extensions are. These will be more commonly recognized when more people and organizations adopt Open Document-ready software.
Ogg Vobris Ogg Vorbis is a new audio compression format developed by Xiph. It is an open, patent-free, professional audio encoding and streaming technology with all the benefits of Open source. Indian Language Computing Let us recall from Annexure I of Class XI that in order to communicate with the computers some kind of a binary code is required.
In this regard, a detailed study was made on BCD code which is a 4 bit code. However, BCD code is not sufficient enough to accommodate even all the characters of English alphabet and digits. To accommodate all these, a higher bit code is required.
In the earlier days most computers were using an 8 bit system. This extra bit gave computer developers lot of empty spaces which was used for different purposes. In order to work with Indian languages, these unspecified spaces were used for Indic characters. The efforts were very creative and gave good results despite the fact that there was no or very little support from the operating systems. Since no general rules and methodologies were adopted in developing Indic characters, different developers developed these characters in their own ways.
This created compatibility issues across different programs and across different operating systems. For example browsers like Internet Explorer did not support all Indic characters and displayed distorted texts. On one hand, more and more work had been undertaken to facilitate the use of Indian languages on computers but on the other hand it was becoming difficult to maintain consistency across different programs developed for the same set of Indic characters.
In such a scenario, it was important to have a common standard for coding Indian scripts. The Indic scripts are a family of abugida alphabetic-syllabary writing systems. They were also the source of the dictionary order of Japanese kana. Similarly, to work with other languages of the world, people were making efforts to use ASCII along with the extra 8th bit. Unicode was developed with the aim to conceive a single standard code which could manage to represent all languages of the world.
This ensures platform, vendor and application independence. This font consists of two parts which are both necessary for the font to be properly printed and displayed on screen. With most operating systems, these fonts can be installed simply by being placed in the system's folder. True Type This format was jointly developed by Apple and Microsoft in the late 80s. These fonts contain both the screen and printer font data in a single component, making the fonts easier to install.
And that is why these are a good choice for those who find the installation of fonts difficult. Open Type This is the latest font format which is a joint effort by Apple and Microsoft. Like True Type fonts, this contains both the screen and printer font data in a single component.
However, open type fonts support multiple platforms and expanded character sets. Additionally, open type format allows the storage of upto 65, characters. This additional space provides freedom to include add-ons such as small caps, old style figures, alternate characters and other extras that previously needed to be distributed as separate fonts.
However, not all open type fonts contain additional characters. Many fonts have been converted from either PostScript or TrueType formats without expanded character sets to take advantage of the cross-platform functionality benefits of Open Type. OpenType fonts that do contain expanded character sets are referred to informally as OpenType Pro fonts.
Support for OpenType Pro fonts is increasing, but the format is yet to be fully supported by all applications. Every time printing takes place, same character will appear with same shape e. Times New Roman, Arial etc. Dynamic fonts - Dynamic font is a web browser technology used when visiting any website that uses fonts which are not installed on client's machine.
The web browser would not be able to display the page properly, but will select one of fonts available on client machine. In this the characters are redefined at each occurrence everytime they are displayed or printed. All hand written fonts such as handwritten alphabets, calligraphic letters, graffiti etc are dynamic fonts because of individual variations. This technology is helpful in displaying multilingual websites.
Entering Indian language text Many tools have been developed to facilitate the typing of Indian language text. But while typing, the Indian alphabets are written phonetically i.
For e. The whole arrangement of mapping the keyboard keys to specific language characters is known as keymap. A keymap is internally stored as a table. Multiple keymaps are used to store complete keymapping e.
Future Trends At present very few open source endeavors which involve few people are there and are largely unstructured and undisciplined. But as this concept matures in future more OSS projects will come up and will adopt more structured methodologies to code, control and coordinate.
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