civil engineering quantity surveying books free download pdf

civil engineering quantity surveying books free download pdf

Documents can only be sent to your Kindle devices from e-mail accounts that you added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List. What's the problem with this file? The vibration of concrete and its importance: Different types of concrete vibrators are used to perform the vibration of concrete.

The chemical interaction between cement and water binds the aggregate. SLAB: Slabs are constructed to provide flat surfaces, usually horizontal, in building floors, roofs, bridges, and other types of structures. The description of each item in the final BoQ should be short, precise and descriptive as per the specification. Basic principles of taking Off The following tasks are part of the Taking Off: Describing the item, Bracketing relating the description to the quantity , Timising, Dotting on adding to the timising factor , The Ampersand ditto , Waste calculations, Deduction of items, Correction of dimensions nullifying.

Basic principles of taking off 1. Drawings shall be fully understood and clearly detailed. Works, which cannot be measured accurately, shall be expressed as provisional quantity PQ and will result in provisional sum PS and lump sum LS 3.

There shall be the understanding that measurements are taken to the nearest cm. Built items shall generally include all possible entrants like labor, materials including storing, loading, unloading and handling , fixing, use of plant and equipment, wastage of materials, equipment; which will result in a better process for establishing prices and profit.

Basic principles of taking Off 5. Prior knowledge of the regulations is necessary For E. Measurements of civil works shall be carried out in such a way that it can be easily checked and audited. Types of taking Off Mensuration the calculation of geometric quantities such as length, area, and volume, from dimensions and angles that are already known. Girth perimeter computation linear measurement. There are various methods of taking off quantities for computation of girth.

In- to- in and out- to-out method some wall lengths are taken out to out and others in to in offsets are added to out to out lengths and same are deducted from in -to-in lengths; used for any type of measurement irrespective of condition of symmetry. Centre line method suitable only when the cross sections of all walls are symmetrical. In this method Centre line length is found and same is used for taking off quantities therefore only width and depth vary.

Taking Off Types of taking off Crossing method lengths and breadths of walls as shown in plan are taken for working out various items and this method is useful only if the offsets of footings are symmetrical. Center Line Method All dimensions are taken center to center. Types of taking Off C. Methods of Measurement in Building 1. Felling of Trees Trees shall be enumerated and identified by diameter.

Removal of termite hills Termite hill removal shall be measured by the volume of earth removed and disposed off. Removal of structures Removal of structure shall be measured in lump sum, area or volume if sufficient description of works is given or using applicable units of work under each item of work in this Specification where unit rate quotations are required.

Methods of Measurement in Building 2. The removal of top soil shall be measured by the area occupied by the work to be placed on the cleared area. Excavation in ordinary soil Excavation in ordinary soil shall be measured by volume as the net void created by the excavation with deduction made for existing voids.

Excavation shall be measured in successive stages of mm from starting level. If not shown, the limits shall be, the surface area covered by the permanent structure resting on the area of bulk excavation plus the working space allowed for trench or pit excavations for the foundations of the permanent structure. In the instance of no limits being established or no permanent structure, the working space shall be determined by the Engineer but shall not exceed mm on either side of the limits of the area to be excavated.

Hard core and stone filling exceeding mm thickness shall be measured by the volume of void filled by the hard core or stone chipping. Methods of Measurement in Building 3. Concrete Work Cast insitu concrete Insitu concrete work shall be understood as including gauging, mixing, casting in place, construction joints tamping of horizontal surfaces and curing.

Walls Concrete Work Cast insitu concrete Differentiation shall be made for: Steps, staircases and landings Mass in-fillings. Read more here. A senior English major talks with her advisor about his philosophy on creative writing and teaching. Thread Tools Show Printable Version. Free books on Quantity Surveying and Estimation Examples Pdf Hello guys pls someone should help on books on quantity surveying and estimations. Re: Estimation and Quantity Surveying notes book pdf download thanks a lot for this file.

Re: Estimation and Quantity Surveying notes book pdf download thank u so much. Re: Estimation and Quantity Surveying notes book pdf download thanks sir. Branch: : Civil Engineering. G Degree, B. Pharma, B. Sc, B. A, Bachelor. Com, MBA, M. Sc, Ph. Other Useful Links. Your Comments About This Post. This arrangement involves the developer leasing the site to a bank or other institution for a nominal rent.

On completion, the bank leases the building to the developer at a rate that includes construction and fi- nance costs.

This approach also has the potential for tax allowances. Debt finance As has been stated previously, the big advantage to debt finance is that risk is transferred to the funder. The amount of interest charged will reflect the perceived risk of the development.

The principal sourc- es of debt finance are banks, both UK-based and overseas. An addition percentage will be added to the base rate to reach the rate to be charged. The higher the perceived risk, the greater the addition.

In the UK, the recent past has seen a period of reasonably stable base rates at historically low levels, but this has not always been the case! These terms refer to the extent to which the developer guarantees the debt. In the case of a non-recourse loan, the finance is secured on the development itself. In a case where the bank needs to call in the debt, then none of the assets of the developer will be at risk. Limited recourse loans refer to the position where, as well as the development under finance, other assets of the devel- oper are required as a guarantee.

Mezzanine fund- ing is rather like a second mortgage that ranks below the senior debt. This means that, in the case of project failure, the senior lender has first recourse to recover losses.

Bonds The bond market offers a source of long-dated debt. Accordingly, as an alternative to the banking sector, it is now common place for many organisations to consider raising money in this market, especially if the project concerned is so big that there in insufficient liquidity in the market. Regardless of which of the above techniques is used, the import as- pect of including this item in the feasibility report is that it high- lights the fact that property development has a number of inherent risks.

These risks must be correctly managed if the project is to be a success. After a budget has been finalised, market conditions rarely evolve as expected; interest rates change, materials and labour short- ages occur, and so on.

While risk cannot be avoided, it can be mitigated and managed. Sensitivity analysis Sensitivity analysis is a method for analysing uncertainty by chang- ing input variables, for example, and observing the sensitivity of the result. The method can be used either on a variable-by-variable basis or by changing groups of variables at once using scenario analysis.

Variable-by-variable analysis. This approach analyses uncertainty and isolates the affect of change on one variable of the feasibility study at a time. A variable-by-variable analysis is based on the assumption that factors affecting a project do not operate independently of one another. For example, it is unlikely that increases in interest rates and lack of demand for the completed development are independent factors.

It does this by displaying the range of possible project outcomes for a range of input values, which shows the decision makers the input values that would make the project a winner or a loser. The major disadvantage of sensitivity analysis is that there is no explicit probabilistic measure of risk exposure.

That is, although one might be sure that one of several outcomes might happen, the analy- sis contains no explicit measure of their respective likelihoods. A good way to graphically represent the outcomes of a sensitivity analysis is with the use of a spider diagram see Figure 2. It is an instant snapshot of the relative importance of several uncertain variables. It can be seen from Figure 2. It does this by the use of probalistic techniques that attempt to mimic what will happen in a real situation.

It is far superior than the sensitivity anal- yses described above, because not only do the results illustrate the impact of an input, changing but also they take into the account the probability that any given event will happen, based upon what has happened in the past in similar projects.

Whichever of the above techniques are used, it should not be for- gotten that these are simply decision-making tools and should not be used as a stand alone set of facts. It will always be the case that the quantity surveyor will interpret and review the outcome before reporting figures to the client. Although WLC can be carried out at any stage of the project and not just during the procurement process Figure 2. There now follows a simple example based on the selection of material types, illustrating the net present value and the annual equivalent approaches to whole life cost procurement.

This problem is a classic one, which material, with widely dif- ferent initial and maintenance costs, will deliver the best value for money over the life cycle of the building Table 2.

The calculation is repeated for each material or component under consideration and then a comparison can be made. A replacement expenditure profile, excluding cyclical maintenance and energy over a range of elements over a year contract period is shown in Table 2.

However, in reality, theory and practice are often very different. For example, for many public authorities, finding budgets for construc- tion work is usually more difficult than meeting recurring running and maintenance costs that are usually included in annual budgets as a matter of course.

In addition to the net present value and annual equivalent approaches described previously, the simple aggregation could sometimes be used effectively when evaluating whole life costs.

Forecasting costs and value 83 Simple aggregation This method of appraisal involves adding together the costs, with- out discounting, of initial capital costs, operation and maintenance costs. This approach has a place in the marketing brochure and it helps to illustrate the importance of considering all the costs associated with a particular element but has little value in cost forecasting.

A similarly simplistic approach is to evaluate a component on the time required to pay back the investment in a better quality product.

For example, a number of energy-saving devices are available for lift installations. A choice is made on the basis of which over the life cycle of the lift, say five or ten years, will pay back the investment the quickest.

This last approach does have some merit, particularly in situations where the life cycle of the component is relatively short and the advances in technology, and hence the introduction, of a new and more efficient product is likely. Criticisms of whole life costing WLC is also not an exact science, as, in addition to the difficulties inherent in future cost planning, there are larger issues at stake.

Also, WLC requires a different way of thinking about cash, assets and cash flow. Many organisations are simply not geared up for this adjustment. Perhaps the most crucial reason is the difficulty in obtaining the appropriate level of information and data.

There is a lack of available data to make the calculations reliable. The Building Maintenance Information BMI define an element for occupancy cost as expenditure on an item which fulfils a specific func- tion irrespective of the use of the form of the building.

The system is dependent on practitioners submitting relevant data for the benefit of others. The increased complexity of construction means that it is far more difficult to predict the whole life cost of built assets. There is no comprehensive risk analysis of building com- ponents available for practitioners, only a wide range of predictions of estimated life spans and notes on preventive maintenance — this is too simplistic, there is a need for costs to be tied to risk including the consequences of component failure.

There is no guarantee that the selection of so-called high-quality materials will result in low life cycle costs. There is also a lack of taxation incentive, in the form of tax breaks, etc.

WLC, by definition, deals with the future and the future is unknown. Increasingly, obsolescence is being taken into account during procurement — a factor that is impossible to control since it is influenced by such things as fashion, technological advances and innovation.

An increasing challenge is to procure built assets with the flexibility to cope with changes. Thus, the treatment of uncertainty in information and data is crucial as uncertainty is endemic to WLC. Another major difficulty is that the WLC tech- nique is expensive in terms of the time required. This difficulty becomes even clearer when it is required to undertake a WLC ex- ercise within an integrated real-time environment at the design stage of projects.

Forecasting costs and value 85 In addition to the above changes in the nature of development, other factors have emerged to convince the industry that WLCs are impor- tant, principally sustainability. This method was first developed and introduced into the manufac- turing sector in America, immediately after the Second World War. The principal objective of this technique is to gather together the principle stakeholders of a new project in a workshop over a four or five day period.

The process is managed by a value management practitioner, who can be a quantity surveyor. This may be the only occasion when all of the stakeholders of a new project meet together to discuss the outcomes.

The process involves the analysis of the re- quired functions of a new project and then the investigation of how these function may be achieved Figure 2. Concentrating of func- tions allows items that do not contribute to the identified functions, referred to as waste, to be removed from the design. The traditional approach to determining the cost of a new project is to apply costs to the product — the various parts of a new building. Value management takes a sideways step and applies costs to the required functions and then looks at ways, through design and con- struction, for providing functionally optimised building projects.

It is broken down into three phases: Pre-Study, where members of the value management team become familiar with the project parameters. Next comes the Value Study phase, which is itself broken down into six phases that take the workshop through a structured process, the characteristics of which are: Functional analysis.

Defining, classifying and establishing the worth of a function or functions which is at the heart of the value management process. The definition of function can be problematic; experience has shown that the search for a definition can result in lengthy descriptions that do not lend themselves to analysis. In ad- dition, the definition of function has to be measurable. In order to establish some sort of hierarchy, functions need to be classified into primary needs or supporting function wants.

Complete Data Files. Evaluation Factors. Study Scope. Data Models. Finalise scope. Function Analysis Phase Identify Functions. Classify Functions. Function Models. Establish Function Worth. Cost Functions. Establish Value Index. Select Functions for Study. Select Ideas for Development. Development Phase Benefit Analysis. Technical Data Package.

Implementation Plan. Final Proposals. Presentation Phase Oral Presentation. Written Report. Obtain Commitments for Implementation. Implement Changes. Monitor Status. Out of the list of functions emerges the highest order function that can be defined as the overall reason for the project and meets the overall needs of the client.

Or, in other words, seems to have a high concentration to the total project cost in relation to the function.

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