human resource management by ss khanka pdf free download

human resource management by ss khanka pdf free download

Incentives and Benefits Motivation : Concepts and Application Employee Empowerment Employee Health and Safety Social Security Employee Discipline Employee Grievances Industrial Relations IR Industrial Disputes ID Trade Unionism Collective Bargaining HR activities like recruitment, selection, training, compensation, industrial relations and separations are carried.

Organisational Culture and Conflict. As individuals have personality, organisations have cultures. Each organisation has its own culture that distinguishes one organisation from the another. Culture may be understood as sharing of some core values or beliefs by the members of the organisation.

Conflict usually surfaces because of dualities such as personal goal vs. Such conflicts have their bearings on HR activities in an organisation. Professional Bodies. For this, the NIPM in India has laid down a code of ethics which the HR practitioners are expected to declare their allegiance to the code see Figure 2. Thus, professional bodies also influence HR functions of an organisation. External environment includes forces like economic, political, technological, demographic etc.

Each of these external forces is examined here. Economic: Economic forces include growth rate and strategy, industrial production, national and per capita incomes, money and capital markets, competitions, industrial labour and globalisation. All these forces have significant influence on wage and salary levels. Growing unemployment and reservation in employment also affect the choice for recruitment and selection of employees in organisations.

Political: Political environment covers the impact of political institutions on HRM practices. For example, democratic political system increases the expectations of workers for their well being.

The total political environment is composed of three institutions:. Legislature: This is called Parliament at the central level and Assembly at the state level. A plethora of labour laws are enacted by the legislature to regulate working conditions and employment relations. Executive: It is the Government that implements the law. In other words, the legislature decides and the executive acts. Judiciary: This is like a walchdog above the two.

It ensures that both the legislature and the executive work within the confines of the constitution and also in the overall interest of the people.

These affect, in one way or the other, all HR activities from planning to placement to training to retention and maintenance. Technological: Technology is a systematic application of organised knowledge to practical tasks.

Technological advances affect the HR functions in more than one way. First , technology makes the job more intellectual or upgraded. Second , it renders workers dislocated if they do not equip themselves to the job. Third , job becomes challenging for the employees who cope with the requirements of technology.

Fourth , technology reduces human interaction at the work place. Finally , job-holders become highly professionalised and knowledgeable in the job they perform.

Demographic: Demographic variables include sex, age, literacy, mobility, etc. As such, the traditional line of distinction between manual and non-manual workers is getting blurred. Employees are demanding parity in remuneration and responsibility among various categories and levels of employees. This summary is organised by the learning objectives given on page… In India, the evolution of HRM is traced back to the s as a state intervention to solve the problems of employee grievances.

Evolving along the years, a new approach-the human resource management- has emerged for managing people with a pragmatic, flexible approach.

Environment of HRM comprises of internal environment, i. Industrial Revolution. Minimum Wages. Scientific Management. Human Engineering. Human Resource Development. Trade Union. Bring out the evolution of HRM in India. Discuss the environment of HRM in India. Richard A. Johnson, Fremont E. Kast, and James E. Taylor: op. Venkata Ratnam and B. Debi S. Saini and Sami A. Define strategic HRM. List the various benefits that strategic management offers to an organisation.

Discuss the role of HRM in strategic management. Delineate the strategic human resource practices implemented by Essar Steel Ltd. We mentioned in the previous chapter that the post World War Second rendered the world economy with bad economic conditions. The business world witnessed metamorphic changes re- flected in terms of internationalisation of business, ferocity of competition, amazing technological advancement, ever-growing state interference, fast changing socio-economic and political environ- ment and emergence of new human values.

While these developments opened tremendous growth opportunities, at the same time, these also complicated business problems and even posed business threats to survival of the existing business. In order to cope with and survive in the midest of such business environment, the need for a comprehensive management approach that could enable to exploit business opportunities with the minimum risks involved in highly complex and competitive business environment was seriously felt.

Thus, the concept of strategic management evolved against such background. It has now been widely recognized in corporate world that if corporate enterprises have to face successfully competitive challanges and exploit the business opportunities, adoption of strategic management approach is must.

This is so in all functional areas of management including HRM. So as to know how HRM can be aligned and integrated with the complex and competitive busi- ness environment, it would be pertinent to have an understanding of the concept and mechanism of stratgic human resource management. With this in mind, this chapter is devoted to dilate upon the same. Thus, strategy is associated with the long-term decisions taken at the top of the enterprise. The term strategy is frequently being used in the present-day corporate world.

It envisages thinking ahead to survive and grow in a highly competitive environ- ment 1. Strategy is concerned with determining which option will provide maximum benefits. Accord- ing to Jauch and Glueck 2. It is designed to ensure that the basic objectives of the enterprise are achieved through proper execution by the organisation.

Basically any strategic process can be broken down into two phases:. Strategic implementation is concerned with aligning the organisation structure, systems and processes with the chosen strategy. Strategic management is the process of formulating, implementing and evaluating business strategies to achieve organisational objectives.

Cunningham 3 has defined strategic manage- ment as a manner by which oeganisations plan to deal with the various aspects of management like problem perception, divergent thinking, substantial resources, decisions making, innova- tions, taking risks and facing uncertainty.

Strategic human resource management is to ensure that human resource management is fully integrated into strategic planning, that HRM policies cohere both across policy areas and across hierarchies and that HRM policies are accepted and used by line managers as part of their every day work, opines Guest 5.

According to Donald F. It includes environmental scan- ning, strategy formulation, strategy implemention and evaluation and control. The success of an organisation depends on the people therein. This means how they are ac- quired, developed, motivated and retained in the organisation play an important role in the organisational success.

Then, this presupposes an integral approach toward human resouce functions and overall business functions of an organisations. Thus, strategic HRM means a strategic look at HR functions in line with the business functions of an organisation. Strategic HRM, therefore, is concerned with the following:.

Analyse the opportunities and threats existing in the external environment. In other words, make a SWOT analysis of organisation. Implement the strategies so formulated. Fred R. David 8 has listed the following benefits that strategic management brings for an organisation:. Allows identification, prioritisation and exploitation of opportunites. Provides an objective view of management problems. Represents a framework for improved co-ordination and control of activities.

Minimises the effects of adverse conditions and changes. Allows major decisions to better support established objectives. Allows more effective allocation of time and resources to identified opportunities. Allows fewer resources and lesser time to be devoted to correcting erroneous or adhoc decisions. Creates a framework for internal communication among personnel. Helps to integrate the behaviours of individuals into a total effort. Provides a basis for the clarification of individual responsibilities.

Gives encouragement to forward thinking. Provides a co-operative, integrated and enthusiastic approach to tackling problems and opportunities.

Encourages a favourable attitude towards change. Gives a degree of discipline and formality to the management of a business. We have already mentioned that strategic business plan is formulated to achieve competitive advantage. From this, specific strategy for each functional area viz. In other words, the formulation of organisational strategy is integrative with the formulation of functional strategies. Here, human resource strategy assumes more impor- tance because it provides human resources for other functional areas also.

This suggests that we must recognize that human resources integrally affect the overall strategy of an organisation. With this in mind, we are now discussing the integrative role played by human resources in the strategic manage- ment of an organisation. Let us examine the role of HR in these two phases separately. Role in Strategy Formulation. As we mentioned earlier in this chapter, environmental scanning is followed by strategy formula- tion.

Environmental scanning helps an organisation identify its opportunities and threats prevailent in the external environment. Here, HRM proves of great help in scanning the existing external environment, and thus, identifies the specific opportunities and threats of it for the organisation.

Besides, HRM is also of great help to make the organisation competitive intelligence available. This may include the incentive plans being used by the competitors, customer-complaints, labour laws, etc 1 0. Instances are available to mention that the unique HR. A well known accounting and consulting firm, Arthur Anderson represents one such example 1 1. Illinois training facility develops unique HR capabilities for the firm and that enables the firm to react quickly to the changing demands of the firm.

In India, Essar Steel Limited represents one such case where HR plays an important role in the strategy formulation of the company. Role In Strategy Implementation. As stated earlier, HRM provides competent human resouces to other functional areas also. Many such stories abound in our country. Maruti Udyog and Hindustan Motors are two. We know that Maruti Udyog and Hindustan Motors are Manufacturing cars, essentially using identical technology.

HRM supports strategy implementation in other ways as well. For example, HR is today heavily involved in the execution of strategy in the form of downsizing and restructuring strategies, through outplacing employees instituting performance linked pay plans, reducing health-care costs and re- training employees.

Human resource plays an expanded role under the strategic human resource approach. No longer. As Michael Porter argues in Competitive Advantage, human re- source management can help a firm to achieve a competitive advantage. By involving the HRD consideration when an overall strategy is formulated, HRD can help achieve a strategic advantage. This is true for Essar Steel Ltd. The group is committed to the development of core structure and infrastructure business in India and abroad. It is actively involved in five principal areas of business viz.

Essar Steel is the second largest company in India in the private sector producing 2. They have the following manufacturing facilities:. For example, more than 50 per cent training programmes are designed and implemented primarily taking a strategic.

The vision-mission statement is the evolution of people in the organisation from the various levels of participation. Instead of conducting various programmes in conventional ways just to claim that the organisation is concerned for people development, Essar took a different approach. Of late, they realize that HRD would be a powerful tool in achieving the corporate strategy and business objectives.

They hire the author from one of the premier institutions of the country and gave him responsibility to align corporate strategy with the HRD strategy of the organisation. The work started with an action research to understand the problems in the business which hinder the performance. Based on the findings, they could identify that the low performance was due to the low morale of the people.

Insecurity, poor communication, lack of professionalism, adhocism, etc. The company formulated HRD policy which was drawn from the business strategy. The organisation implemented the following HR strategies:. Right Sizing Human Resources-Manpower audit based on competence mapping in turn making the organisation right-sized.

Developing a Learning Culture through Continuous Learning- People were exposed to latest technology and management technique through workshops, discussions and technical ses- sion in each department. Web Based Customer Relationship Management—The organisation linked its manufactur- ing unit with each vital customers through net.

Organisation of Executive Leadership Camp to Develop Corporate Pride among the Employ- ees—The young executives in an organisation were taken into a hill station wherein they were exposed to yoga, meditation and latest management techniques of team working etc. Introduction of Willy Korf Innovation Award Scheme—This scheme was to encourage the employees to generate new ideas in improving the workplace productivity.

In this process, employees were lending a contributory hand towards management. Regular Training with a Target of Seven Mandays per Employee—It was made compulsory for each employee to undergo training at least for 7 days in a year on different topics identified through training needs analysis. Training Programmes on Areas of Concern—The major areas of concern were identified through—interaction with technical heads of department and the training is imparted. After implementing the above strategies within a period of two years, the organisation ended with a half year of current fiscal year September 30, with a higher sales volume and record level of exports.

This shows the enhancement of productivity. Moreover, it has been assessed that the down time has been reduced drastically with high employee satisfaction. Today, they are amongst the low cost producers of hot rolled coiled by virtue of being integrated right from the iron or steels, resulting in one of the highest operating margins in India, with a dominant market share in specially high value-added products.

This summary is organised by the learning objectives given on page. Strategy refers to steps taken by an organisation in achieving its vision and mission. The biggest benefit that strategic HRM offers is competitive advantage by building critical capabilities of HR in an organisation. Essar Steel Limited had introduced strategic HRM to capacitate its employees by imparting them required training.

Competitive Advantage. Strategic HRM. Environmental Scanning. SWOT Analysis. Define strategic human resource management. List the benefits it offers. Bring out the role of human resource management in strategic management.

LII, No. Lawrence R. Jauch and William F. Robert B. Personnel Management, vol. Donal F. Ulrich and D. David : Strategic Management, Printice-Hall, , p.

Ibid, p. Define human resource planning and differentiate it from manpower planning. Appreciate the need for and importance of human resource planning. Outline and elaborate the process involved in human resource planning. Describe human resource information system. Describe how human resource planning can be made effective? We do often plan in advance about the things to be done on a busy working day. Parents make advance decisions on the education of their children.

As students, you aslo may think in advance how to go ahead with the preparation of your forthcoming examination, how to make use of your time in the best possible manner. In fact, planning has been an omni present phenomenon in our all walks of life.

This holds true of organisations also. The quality of an organisation is, to a large degree, considered merely the summation of the quality of people it hires and keeps. Therefore, before actually selecting the right people for right jobs, it becomes a prerequisite to decide on the quantity and quality of people required in the organisation. This is done through human resource planning. Industrial Relations, Industrial Disputes, Trade Unions, Collective Bargaining, Human Resource Accounting, International Human Resource Management, Competency-Based Human Resource Management, Work-Life Balance, Human Resource HR Scorecard, Managing Generation-Y Employees, Talent Management, Business Ethics and Corporate Write a Review.

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