How good is microsoft antivirus software free 1 Serious 2 Major 3. The framework for regulating health and safety will vary across the world, for example European countries use the The ILO code recommends that workers should receive EU framework, the Pacific Rim countries tend ffee use the training and, where necessary, retraining in the most effec- USA framework, whereas the Caribbean countries follow tive methods which are available for minimizing risks to the UK framework. Fig X.">

introduction to health and safety at work free download

introduction to health and safety at work free download

Finance for Normal Peopl Tags: Introduction to Health and Safety at Work 6th Edition , introduction to health and safety at work 7th edition pdf , introduction to health and safety in construction 6th edition pdf. No Comments Sep 30, No Comments Nov 20, This duty was also extended by Section and personal protective equipment. This does not mean that employers with four or less employees need not undertake risk assessments. The level of detail should be proportionate to The more common form of risk assessment is the the risk.

If used, they must be appropriate to the particular job and they will There are two basic forms of risk assessment. A quantitative risk assessment attempts to measure the risk by relating the probability of the risk occurring to the possible severity of the outcome and then giving the risk a numerical value. Hazards take many forms including, for example, chemicals, electricity and the use of a ladder. A risk is the likelihood of a substance, activity or process to cause harm.

Risk or strictly the level of risk is also linked to the severity of its consequences. A risk can be reduced and the hazard eliminated or controlled by good management. It is very important to distinguish between a hazard and a risk — the two terms are often confused and activi- ties often called high risk are in fact high hazard.

There should only be high residual risk where there is poor health and safety management and inadequate control measures.

Electricity is an example of a high hazard as it has the Figure 5. The risk associated with electric- ity — the likelihood of being killed on coming into contact with an electrical device — is, hopefully, low. Specified dangerous occurrences are reportable to the national Health and Safety Enforcement Authori- 5. Examples include the collapse of a scaffold or a crane This is concerned with those illnesses or physical and or the failure of any passenger-carrying equipment.

Bird collected a large quantity of accident workplace activities. Such conditions may be induced data and produced a well-known triangle to represent it by the particular work activity of the individual or by Figure 5. The time interval It can be seen that damage and near miss accidents between exposure and the onset of the illness may occur much more frequently than injury accidents and are, be short e.

The study also shows cancer. Other authorities define an The main objective of risk assessment is to determine the accident more narrowly by excluding events that do not measures required by the organization to comply with rel- involve injury or ill-health. This book will always use the evant health and safety legislation and, thereby, reduce the HSE definition. The purpose is to help the employer or self-employed person to determine the measures required to comply with their national legal obliga- 5.

The risk assessment will need to cover all those who may This is any incident that could have resulted in an accident. In the case of shared workplaces, an overall risk assess- has shown that, approximately, for every 10 near miss ment may be needed in partnership with other employers.

Risk assessment is not only concerned with injuries in the In a study undertaken by the UK HSE, it was shown that workplace but also needs to consider the possibility of indirect costs or hidden costs could be 36 times greater occupational ill-health. Health risks fall into the following than direct costs of an accident. Indirect costs may be insured business loss, product or They may be acute, which means that they occur process liability or uninsured loss of goodwill, extra over- soon after a single or short-term exposure to the agent time payments, accident investigation time, production and are often reversible, although in some cases emer- delays.

There are many reasons for the seriousness of a haz- They may be chronic, which means that the health ard not to be obvious to the person exposed to it. It may effects develop with time: they occur following prolonged be that the hazard is not visible radiation, certain gases or repeated exposure to the agent.

It may take several and biological agents or have no short-term effect work- years for the associated disease to develop and the effects related upper limb disorders. The common reasons are usually irreversible or severe e. The principal Risk assessment is part of the planning and implementa- categories are as follows: tion stage of the health and safety management system. Leader or Manager should have health and safety experi- All aspects of the organization, including health and safety ence and relevant training in risk assessment.

It is sensible management, need to be covered by the risk assessment to involve the appropriate line manager, who has respon- process. This will involve the assessment of risk in areas sibility for the area or activity being assessed, as a team such as maintenance procedures, training programmes member. Other members of the team will be selected on and supervisory arrangements.

At least one team mem- Such a risk assessment should be completed first and then ber must have communication and report writing skills.

It is likely that team mem- The UK HSE has produced a free leaflet entitled Five bers will require some basic training in risk assessment. It gives prac- tical advice on assessing risks and recording the findings 5. The five steps are: Guidance on the approach of the ILO to risk assessment is 1. The Team 4. The record of the assess- Step 1 ment should be retained for a period of time as may be specified by the competent authority.

The second stage of the assessment should consist of Step 4 the collection of information about the hazards that are present or likely to occur so that the magnitude and sig- Record the significant findings nificance for health and safety of any hazard or risk may be determined. This information should include that pro- vided by suppliers and that available to the public. The Step 5 relevance of work organization and the practicability of Review the assessment and revise it if necessary various methods of control should be considered at this stage.

Determining the magnitude of the hazard or risk Figure 5. In either case, account should be taken of the criteria on which those limits have been based. It is, how- ment, including future monitoring of exposure levels, ever, easier to divide the process into six elements: is established. Each element will be discussed in turn. The reasons indicating that an assessment might no longer be valid include: 5. Only significant hazards, which could result in seri- surveillance; ous harm to people, should be identified.

Hazards will vary from workplace to workplace but activities should normally be addressed in days, medium the checklist in Appendix 5.

Many questions in no action will be required. It will usually be necessary the NEBOSH examinations involve several common haz- for risk assessors to receive some training in risk level ards found in most workplaces.

It is important that unsafe conditions are not con- A quantitative risk assessment attempts to quantify fused with hazards, during hazard identification. Unsafe the risk level in terms of the likelihood of an incident and conditions should be rectified as soon as possible after its subsequent severity. Clearly the higher the likelihood observation. Examples of unsafe conditions include miss- and severity, the higher the risk will be.

The likelihood ing machine guards, faulty warning systems and oil spill- depends on such factors as the control measures in place, age on the workplace floor. The severity will depend on 5.

The Employees and contractors who work full time at the UK HSE suggests in HSG65 a simple 3x3 matrix to deter- workplace are the most obvious groups at risk and it will mine risk levels. However, there may be other Likelihood of occurrence Likelihood level groups who spend time in or around the workplace.

Harm is certain or near certain to occur High 3 These include young workers, trainees, new and expect- Harm will often occur Medium 2 Harm will seldom occur Low 1 ant mothers, cleaners, contractor and maintenance work- ers and members of the public. Members of the public Severity of harm Severity level will include visitors, patients, students or customers as Death or major injury as defined by Major 3 well as passers-by. It Risk Severity Likelihood must also give an indication of the numbers of people from the different groups who come into contact with the Likelihood Severity hazard and the frequency of these contacts.

Slight 1 Serious 2 Major 3. The purpose of the risk assessment, there- fore, is to reduce the remaining risk. This is called the resid- High 3 Medium 3 High 6 High 9 ual risk. Thus: The goal of risk assessment is to reduce all residual 6—9 High risk risks to as low a level as reasonably practicable.

In a 3—4 Medium risk relatively complex workplace, this will take time so 1—2 Low risk that a system of ranking risk is required — the higher the risk level the sooner it must be addressed and controlled.

This is certainly the case for risk or to the risk that the management system for health NEBOSH Certificate candidates and is suitable for use dur- and safety will not deliver in the way in which it was ing the practical assessment. During the risk assessment, expected or required.

Such risks will add to the activity a judgment is made as to whether the risk level is high, or occupational risk level. In simple terms, poor supervi- medium or low in terms of the risk of somebody being sion of an activity will increase its overall level of risk. A risk injured. This designation defines a timetable for remedial management matrix has been developed which combines actions to be taken thereby reducing the risk.

High-risk these two risk levels, as shown below. The 9. These principles are not exactly a hierarchy but must be considered alongside the usual hierarchy of risk con- trol, which is as follows: 5. Where there are existing preventative measures in See Section 6. More details on the principles of on an ongoing basis.

Preventive and protective measures control are contained in Chapter 6. Hazard prevention and control procedures or arrange- 5. This is equally true for the risk assessment the organization; as a whole. The risk assessment needs to be information or reports from organizations, such as revised only if significant changes have taken place since labour inspectorates, occupational health and safety the last assessment was done.

An accident or incident or services, and other services as appropriate. This is known as the post-accident Prioritization of risk control risk assessment. The prioritization of the implementation of risk control measures will depend on the risk rating high, medium 5. It may be In recent years, risk assessment has been accompanied convenient to deal with a low-level risk at the same time by a cost-benefit analysis that attempts to evaluate the as a high-level risk or before a medium-level risk.

It may costs and benefits of risk control and reduction. The also be that work on a high-risk control system is delayed costs could include capital investment, maintenance and due to a late delivery of an essential component — training and produce benefits such as reduced insur- this should not halt the overall risk reduction work.

It is ance premiums, higher productivity and better prod- important to maintain a continuous programme of risk uct quality. The pay-back period for most risk reduction improvement rather than slavishly following a predeter- projects other than the most simple has been shown mined priority list. Although the benefits are often difficult to quantify, cost—benefit analysis does help to justify the level of expenditure on a risk reduc- 5. As mentioned earlier, it is very useful to keep a written record of the risk assessment.

Three such groups will be considered — Steps to Risk Assessment provides a very useful guide and young persons, expectant and nursing mothers and dis- examples of the detail required for most risk assessments.

There are many possible layouts which can be used for the risk assessment record. Examples are given in Appendi- 5. It should be noted that in Appendices 5. This should mean that an annual review will be sufficient. A risk assessment involving young people needs to The written record provides excellent evidence to a consider the particular vulnerability of young persons in health and safety enforcement officer of compliance with the workplace.

Young workers clearly have a lack of experi- national health and safety law. The record should be acces- ence and awareness of risks in the workplace, a tendency sible to employees and a copy kept with the safety manual to be subject to peer pressure and a willingness to work containing the safety policy and arrangements. Many young workers will be trainees or on unpaid. Young people are not fully developed According to ILO estimates for younger and older and are more vulnerable to physical, biological and chemi- workers: cal hazards than adults.

For example, in Australia, fatal injuries involving elec- The extent of the risks identified in the risk assess- tricity are twice more common amongst younger ment will determine whether employers should restrict workers than amongst their older colleagues, accord- the work of the people they employ.

The alternatives for her are to under proper supervision by a competent person, and be offered other work or be suspended from work on full providing the risks are reduced to the lowest level, so pay. The woman must notify the employer in writing that far as is reasonably practicable. At Other work activities that may present a particular induction, they should be introduced to their mentor and risk to pregnant women at work are radiography, involv- given close supervision, particularly during the first few ing possible exposure to ionizing radiation, and shop work weeks of their employment.

Younger and Typical factors which might affect such women are: older workers are particularly vulnerable. On produc- tion of a medical certificate or other appropriate certifi- A pregnant or nursing woman should not be obliged cation stating the presumed date of childbirth, a woman to do night work if a medical certificate declares such work to whom the Convention applies is entitled to a period of to be incompatible with her pregnancy or nursing.

She maternity leave of not less than 14 weeks. The Conven- should retain the right to return to her job or an equivalent tion states that it is unlawful for an employer to terminate job as soon as it is safe for her to do so.

She should also be the employment of a woman during her pregnancy or allowed to leave her workplace, if necessary, after notify- absence on leave or during a period following her return ing her employer, for the purpose of undergoing medical to work to be prescribed by national laws or regulations, examinations relating to her pregnancy. The burden priate certification as determined by national law and of proving that the reasons for dismissal are unrelated to practice, breastfeeding mothers should be allowed breaks, pregnancy or childbirth and its consequences or nursing the frequency and length of which should be adapted to rests on the employer.

Where practicable and with the agree- The Convention guarantees a woman the right to ment of the employer and the woman concerned, it return to the same position or an equivalent position should be possible to combine the time allotted for daily paid at the same rate at the end of her maternity leave.

Where practi- more daily breaks or a daily reduction of hours of work cable, provision should be made for the establishment of to breastfeed her child. The period during which nurs- facilities for nursing under adequate hygienic conditions ing breaks or the reduction of daily hours of work are at or near the workplace.

These breaks or the reduction of daily hours of work 5. Organizations have been encouraged for many years to The Maternity Protection Recommendation R employ workers with disabilities and to ensure that their recommends that Member States extend the period of premises provide suitable access for such people. From a maternity leave referred to in the Convention to at least health and safety point of view, it is important that work- 18 weeks. If the current work of the woman presents a risk ers with a disability are covered by special risk assessments to her or her unborn child, as indicated by an appropriate so that appropriate controls are in place to protect them.

For example, employees with a hearing problem will For details of further precautions for lone workers, see need to be warned when the fire alarm sounds or a fork- Section 6.

Special vibrating signals or flashing lights may be used. Similarly workers in wheelchairs will require a clear, wheelchair-friendly route to a fire exit and onwards to the assembly point. If the assessment is still valid, no further action required otherwise revision is needed Principal Hazards Risks to employees and members of the public could arise due to the following hazards: 1.

Main Legal Requirements 1. Significant Risks 1. COSHH assessments are provided and the appropriate controls are implemented. Health surveillance is provided as necessary. Fire procedures are in place and all employees are trained to deal with fire emergencies. A carbon dioxide fire extinguisher is available at every work site.

Kept in fire resistant store. Where there is a risk of injury manual handling assessments are carried out. Any changes found necessary are quickly implemented. Residual Risk, i. Severity ……………………………. Likelihood ……………………………. Residual Risk ………………………….. Signed ……………………… Signed ……………………………. Date ……………………………. Low 1 Low 1 Low 2 Medium 3.

Medium 2 Low 2 Medium 4 High 6. High 3 Medium 3 High 6 High 9. Smith Date of Review : 12 July Risk assessment windows or near heater Contact with bleach Staff Skin irritation. Principles of control 6 After reading this chapter, you should be able to:.

T he control of risks is essential to secure and main- hierarchy of control methods which give the preferred tain a healthy and safe workplace which complies order of approach to risk control. Hazard When risks have been analysed and assessed, deci- identification and risk assessment were covered in Chap- sions can be made about workplace precautions.

Chapter 1 covered these or control. Sometimes the duties imposed by national in more detail. Many requirements are, however, qualified by engineered measures such as the provision of safety protec- phrases such as: suitable and sufficient, proportional to tion e. These require an assessment of cost, along procedures and method statements, along with manage- with information about relative costs, effectiveness and ment supervision.

Further guidance These measures collectively are commonly known in on the meaning of these four expressions is provided in health and safety terms as control measures. Some of the Chapter 1. The principles of control can The general principles of prevention cover technical, be applied to both health risks and safety risks, although behavioural and procedural controls.

These general prin- Chapters 9—16 deal with specific workplace hazards ciples require that where an employer implements any pre- and controls, subject by subject. The principles of pre- ventative measures they shall do so on the basis of these vention now enshrined in EU Directives, OHSAS principles which are not a hierarchy or order of priority. The general principles of prevention are as follows:. This will involve consulting those who will be affected 6.

The control individuals have A hierarchy or priority of control should be considered over their work should be increased, and time spent when assessing the adequacy of existing controls or working at predetermined speeds and in monoto- introducing new controls. It is important to remember nous work should be reduced where it is reasonable that the general principles of prevention are not set to do so. It is important to take advantage of technological ILO-OSH gives an order of priority for preventive and technical progress, which often gives design- and protective measures which is the same as a hierar- ers and employers the chance to improve both chy.

With the Internet and bus uses basically the same hierarchy with a few minor other international information sources available, differences and is the source of the list shown in Sec- very wide knowledge, going beyond what is hap- tions 6.

Table 6. The general hierarchy reflects the concept that risk 6. Some control measures, such as working conditions, social relationships and the eliminating a risk by choosing a safer alternative sub- influence of factors relating to the working envi- stance or machine, provide a high degree of control ronment. Physical safeguards such as guarding Health and safety policies should be prepared and a machine or enclosing a hazardous process need to applied by reference to these principles.

In making decisions about risk control, 8. The best and most effective way of reducing risks is by 9. For example This involves making sure that employees are avoid working at height by using a long-handled tool to fully aware of company policy, safety procedures, clean windows; avoid entry into a confined space by, for good practice, official guidance, any test results example, using a sump pump in a pit which is removed by and legal requirements. A properly set- Substitution describes the use of a less hazardous up health and safety management system should form of a substance or process.

Elimination of hazards or substitute a type of machine which is better guarded to make the substitution for something less same product.

Protect the dangerous parts of a machine by guarding. Design machinery which is remotely operated and to which materials are fed automatically, thus separating the operator from Engineering controls danger areas. It is normally working so that risks are reduced. For example use rods only suitable for the control of health hazards associated to clear drains instead of strong chemicals; use a long- with, for example, noise, vibration, excessive heat or cold, handled water hose brush to clean windows instead of display screens and hazardous substances.

However, it is climbing on ladders. Sometimes the pattern of work can important to note that for many hazards, there are short- be changed so that people can do things in a more natu- term exposure limits as well as normal workplace exposure ral way, for example when placing components for pack- limits over an 8-hour period see Chapter Short-term ing consider whether people are right- or left-handed; limits must not be exceeded during the reduced time encourage people in offices to take breaks from computer exposure intervals.

However, Care must be taken to consider any additional hazards it is possible to consider short bouts of intensive work which may be involved and thereby introduce additional with rest periods when employees are engaged in heavy risks, as a result of a substitution. The principle of isolation is usually followed with the storage of highly flammable liquids or gases which are put into open, air ventilated compounds away from other haz- ards such as sources of ignition or from people who may Figure 6.

There should be records that the This describes the control of risks by means of engineer- employee or contractor has been trained or instructed in ing design rather than a reliance on preventative actions the safe system of work and that they understand it and by the employee. There are several ways of achieving such will abide by it. This is usually a job for hoods Figure 6. They should allow for methodical execution legislative or organizational requirements that are of tasks. The development of safe operating procedures common to all employees.

The system of work describes the safe Before any employee can work safely, they must method of performing the job or activity. A safe system of be shown safe procedures for completing their tasks. Details of systems for low-risk activities may training. Mandatory Anyone who is affected by what is happening in the A blue circle with white symbol denoting a workplace will need to be given safety information. This sign that indicates that a specific course of does not only apply to staff.

It can also apply to visitors, action must be taken. Information can be provided in a variety of ways. Fire equipment These include safety signs, posters, newsletters, memos, A red oblong or square with symbol in emails, personal briefings, meetings, toolbox talks, formal white denoting a safety sign that indicates the location of fire-fighting equipment.

For more details see Chapters 1, 4 and 9. Figure 6. The standard seeks, moreover, colour and graphic image. A picture may be worth a thou- to give guidance to the designers of safety signs and get sand words, but when it comes to graphical symbols for them to use ISO with a view to obtaining greater safety-related information, misunderstanding the mes- overall consistency and, thereby, better universal public sage may have serious consequences.

The signs included have given evidence, after ures 6. Each is displayed by a visual illustration together safety information through a collection of signs designed with the image content, function, field and format of appli- for use in any workplace, location and sector where cation. Geometric shape and colour are also indicated as safety-related questions may be posed. Toxic Corrosive Figure 6. Signs are generally not needed where the sign would not reduce the risk or the risk is insignificant.

The following signs are typical of some of the ones most likely to be needed in these premises. Others may be necessary, depending on the hazards and risks pres- ent. The wording will of course be in the relevant local language. Here emergency routes and emergency exits Figure 6.

This does not cover any fire alarm, location of fire extinguishers or hose reels signs which food hygiene law may require. Advice on the action to means. For example if a wet area of floor is cordoned off, a take in the case of electric shock is no longer a legal warning sign will not be needed, because the barrier will requirement but is recommended Figure 6. In many EU member states areas substantially enclosed areas should have the sign shown in Figure 6.

Hose reel Fire extinguisher Fire alarm call point Figure 6. First-aid post First-aid stretcher Eyewash Figure 6. There is also a requirement to provide eating and rest rooms. Risk control may be enhanced by the provision of eye wash- 6. Search icon An illustration of a magnifying glass. User icon An illustration of a person's head and chest. Sign up Log in. Web icon An illustration of a computer application window Wayback Machine Texts icon An illustration of an open book. As it has become a significant work of reference for managers with health and safety responsibilities, it is a matter of prime importance that it should be kept up to date, as far as is possible, with new legislation and recent developments.

There has been concern for some time at the poor record of health and safety in the construction industry and although performance has got better over recent years, there is still room for improvement. The legal health and safety requirements for all places of work are numerous and complex; it is the intention of the authors to offer an introduction to the subject for all those-.

Health and safety is well recognized as an important component of the activities of any organization, not only because of the importance of protecting people from harm but also because of the growth in the direct and indirect costs of accidents.

These costs have increased more dramatically than the rate of retail price inflation by a considerable amount in the last few years as the number of civil claims and awards have risen each year. It is very important that basic health and safety legal requirements are clearly understood by all organizations whether public or private, large or small.

A good health and safety performance is normally only achieved when health and safety is effectively managed so that significant risks are identified and reduced by adopting appropriate high quality control measures.

It was felt appropriate to produce a text book that mirrored the Construction Certificate syllabus in its revised unitized form and in a single volume to the required breadth and depth. The syllabus, which follows the general pattern for health and safety management set by the Health and Safety Executive in their guidance HSG 65,.

Hughes and Andd Ferrett. Published by Elsevier Introduction to health and safety at work free download. All rights reserved. The right of Philip W. Hughes and Edward Ferrett to be identified as the authors of this work has been asserted in accordance safetty the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act No part of this publication may be reproduced in any material form including photocopying or storing in any cctv camera watch online software free download by electronic means and whether or not transiently or tp to some other use of this publication without the written permission of the copyright holder except in accordance with intrkduction provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act or under the terms of a licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, 90 Tottenham Downlowd Road, London, England W1T 4LP. Applications for the copyright holder's written permission qnd reproduce any part of this introduction to health and safety at work free download should be addressed to the publisher. Phil started work in health and safety in the Factory Inspectorate at introduction to health and safety at work free download Derby District in and moved to Courtaulds in He is also a Professional Member of the American Society of Safety Engineers and has lectured intdoduction throughout the world. Ed Ferrett is an experienced health and image file size reducer software free download consultant who has practised for over 22 years. We expect the book to be used as a basis for training, and as further reference when students are back in their own work- places. We believe that all questions can be answered from the material in the book but we would also urge students to study introduction to health and safety at work free download of the documents given as reference sources at the end of each chapter. Also, it would be advantageous to visit some of the web sites where further detailed guidance is available. Figure X. Policy: Chapter 2 Organizing: Chapter 3 Why? Investigation of incidents: Chapter 8 Investigation of incidents: Chapter 8. Safe Workplace Safe Person. Each of the first two units is further divided into a number of introduction to health and safety at work free download. Fig X. The extra chapters in figure X. Many of the illustrations are also available for downloading and use in training materials. introduction to health and safety at work free download Introduction to Health and Safety at Work 6th edition for the NEBOSH National General Certificate in Occupational Download Free Book. Introduction. 1. Some The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 14 Statute law is law which has been laid down by Parliament as Acts of employers to set goals, but leave them free to decide how​. NEBOSH - Introduction of Health and Safety at Work - - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book. Download PDF of Introduction to Health and Safety in Construction 2nd Edition by Phil Hughes and Ed Ferrett | PDF Free Download. As it has become a significant work of reference for managers with health and safety responsibilities, it is a. Book Name: Introduction to Health and Safety at Work 6th Edition Author: Phil Hughes, Ed Ferrett Publisher: Routledge ISBN Introduction to international health and safety at work Past Exam Papers, Construction Safety, Check out some surprising statistics and work safety tips. Jan 7, - Introduction to Health and Safety at Work: for the NEBOSH National General PDF Free Download. This is a free-to-download, web-friendly version of Essentials of health An introduction to health and safety: Health and safety in small businesses Leaflet. Language: English. health and safety book. Addeddate: Identifier: IntroductionToHealthAndSafetyAtWorkFourthEdition. The lawbreaking of Turnbull was heard by the court which included the same not being competent in a sufficient manner, along with having a failure in ensuring safe workplace and planning adequately. It is aimed at those starting up or running a small to medium-sized business, those who have been appointed as a safety representative in a larger organisation, employees and those who want additional advice on how to control workplace hazards. So, the directors need to take the health and safety obligations in a very serious manner and they need to be aware of the law and guidance in order to comply with them. Conversely, the liabilities covered in the previous segment would be applicable in autocratic style as the managers, in such cases, have the full liability of undertaking such health and safety norms, and where they become careless, they are held liable. Critically analyse the significance of management theory in the context of a health and safety environment. In order to hold a director as grossly negligent, there is a need to show that a duty of care had been owed to the director, this duty needs to have been contravened by the director, and the breach needs to result in death of an individual. London: CRC press. Monaghan, N. When it comes to the democratic style, proper care would be taken by the leadership as the employees play a key role in their safety and health at workplace. This site does not host pdf files, does not store any files on its server, all document are the property of their respective owners. The PDF book consists of total 13 elements separated in 2 parts, the first part is having 5 elements and 8 elements in 2nd part. Here, the key focus is on the general corporate processes and procedures instead of being on the decision making and action of an individual. introduction to health and safety at work free download