Fisher called him 'cruel and crafty, lustful and ignorant' and made reference to the 'crude outpourings of the Koran'. The contemporary Muslim, however, is often less troubled by books which show an open and clear-cut bias, whether this arises from a narrow denominational point of view or as part of a generalized attack on traditional religion, than he is by works which are sympathetic or condescending in intention, but which in practice undermine the foundations of his faith. To take the most obvious example, many writers who might be considered well-disposed work on the unspoken assumption that Muhammad was the 'author' of the Quran, To suggest that the Quran had a human author, even if it is admitted that he was 'an inspired genius', is to do away with the religion of Islam.
These authors refer readily to the 'greatness' of the Prophet; like sympathetic schoolmasters, they find in him much to admire, and they are astonished by his magnanimity to his enemies. They rebut charges that he was anything but sincere, brave and honourable and are shocked by the scurrilous charges brought against him by earlier writers.
At the same time there emerges, quite unconsciously, that note of amiable condescension which — ever since the end of Empire — Europeans have adopted towards the 'backward' or 'developing' peoples of the Third World. There is a certain ambiguity in many of these books, as though their authors were unable to decide whether Islam is or is not a truly revealed religion. Even the British Islamicist, W. Montgomery Watt, appears to be a victim of such indecision.
In his assessment at the end of Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman he remarks in passing that 'not all the ideas that he proclaimed are true and sound, but by God's grace he had been able to provide men with a better religion than they had had before'. One suspects a slip of the pen here, since the author is a Christian, and Christianity came before Islam; but the ambiguity is apparent if one asks, first, why 'God's grace' should have been only partially effective in Muhammad's case, and secondly, in terms of what absolute criterion of truth some of these ideas were true and others less so.
Transpose this to the Christian context and it might reasonably be asked how a believing Christian would respond to the statement that 'not all Jesus's ideas were true and sound', but that Christianity represented an advance on Greek and Roman religion. Where Christian writers are concerned certain limitations are appropriate and acceptable. One does not expect them to be untrue to the principles of their own faith, and the fact that they are themselves believers gives them an understanding of religion as such which opens doors and may, on occasion, lead to the very heart of things; and there are some who understand very well that to speak of another reUgion with courtesy is not only a gesture of respect to its adherents but is also a courtesy to God in the face of the mysteries of divine Self-revelation.
What seems to us contradictory is only the refraction of the eternal ray in the prism of time'. Even Dermenghem, despite the deep love for Islam which led him to end his life in Algeria, demonstrates that there are sticking points beyond which the Christian cannot go and perspectives which he cannot share.
Many Muslims, out of a natural suspicion of a related but rival religion, distrust all Christian writing on Islam and prefer the supposedly objective works of agnostics. In this they are mistaken.
Faith speaks to faith, even in dispute, while the unbeliever is dumb. And, so far as objectivity is concerned, it is not to be found in this quarter. The more closely one considers the typical Western liberal-agnostic child of a particular culture at a particular moment in its history from the other side of the frontier, the more unmistakably he identifies himself as a 'godless Christian'.
He may close himself to faith, but if he reacts against Christianity this is in the name of principles indirectly derived from the Christian religion, just as Asians and Africans have reacted against colonialism in the name of principles derived from their colonial masters.
The open prejudices of the Christian writer are, on the whole, preferable to the hidden ones of the agnostic. In theory the limitations of books on Islam by non-Muslims should be of little consequence. Few people, seeking a proper understanding of Christianity, would turn to non-Christian authors. Cannot Muslim writers satisfy the need that undoubtedly exists?
Most Muslim scholars seem to agree, at least in private, that there has been a singular failure to communicate across the cultural frontier. The actual means of communication — the way in which religion needs to be presented nowadays — have been forged, not out of Islamic materials, but in the West.
The Muslim writer finds himself obliged to work with instruments which do not fit comfortably in his hand. Moreover, traditional Muslims, who have escaped the influence of 'modern', that is to say, occidental education have no understanding of the occidental mind, which is as strange to them as it would be to a Christian of the Middle Ages.
Since the Renaissance, European man has ventured out beyond the barriers set up by traditional civilizations against all such straying. In doing so he may have done irreparable damage to himself, but he has become sophisticated in a way that makes other cultures seem naive in comparison. There was a time when it was otherwise. Plato could call the orientals 'old' in comparison with the innocent youthfulness of the Greeks; now it is the Europeans who are 'old', having seen too much, and being burdened with intolerable memories.
The traditional Muslim writes with authority and conviction, but he does not know how to answer the questions which dominate Western thought in the religious context. The truth of the Quran is, for him, so compelling and so selfevident that, if it does not convince the unbeliever, his poor efforts are hardly likely to do so. For the most part, however, it is Muslims who have been through the modern educational machine who write the books which circulate in the West.
The works they produced in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century cannot now be read without embarrassment. These men were the 'Uncle Toms' of Islam. Their defence of the religion depended, they thought, on proving that it contained nothing incompatible with the best contemporary fashions of thought and accorded perfectly with the moral and philosophical norms of European civilization. Wells , but were often reduced to quoting long-forgotten journalists who had found a good word to say for the Prophet or for Muslims as such.
The idea that the civilization they admired so blindly might be open to radical criticism in terms of Islamic norms scarcely crossed their minds. The situation has changed in recent years, though the 'Uncle Toms' are still with us thinly disguised as modernists. Contemporary Muslim writers cannot be accused of taking no pride in Islam, indeed this pride is sometimes expressed in strident tones, and no one could claim that they are uncritical of Western 'decadence', though their criticism tends to miss the mark, focusing on symptoms rather than on causes.
They have not, however, escaped a different kind of subservience to occidental norms. Yet the European Renaissance was, from the religious point of view, a rebirth of the paganism which Christianity had supplanted, and it was the source of that very 'decadence' which Muslims perceive in Western life and thought.
Their inherent hostility to Christianity blinds them to the fact that forces and ideologies which destroyed one religion may as easily destroy another; or, if they do see this, they believe that Islam's inherent strength and its capacity to absorb and Islamicize alien elements will protect it from subversion.
This is, to say the least, a dangerous gamble. Those who have close contact with Muslims will be accustomed to hearing, with monotonous regularity, the parrot-cry: 'We will take the good things from Western civilization; we will reject the bad things'.
It is strange that any Muslim should imagine this to be possible. Islam itself is an organic whole, a gestalty in which everything is interconnected and in which no single part can be considered in isolation from the rest. The Muslim above all others should understand that every culture has something of this unity and should realize that the modern civilization created in the West, even if it seems constantly to change shape as in a kaleidoscope, forms a coherent pattern in terms of cause and effect.
To draw one fibre from it is to find that this is attached, by countless unseen filaments, to all the rest. In spite of its flaws, the eloquence and insightfulness of this book alone makes is worth reading. View all 3 comments. This book is one of the most influential and genuine works of the century.
The book is as unique as its author. This book is a legacy for posterity and an example of how magnificent British Islam can get. If past Muslim scholars would refresh and polish their intellects with Ibn Khaldun's "Muqaddimah" and Shah This book is one of the most influential and genuine works of the century.
If past Muslim scholars would refresh and polish their intellects with Ibn Khaldun's "Muqaddimah" and Shah Wali Allah's "Hujjat", English speaking students have no excuse in doing the same with this book. A must read for the serious minded. Absolutely timeless. I want to give it more than 5 stars! The first chapters are so equivalent to an Arabic "Seera" books just written in English with Gai Eaton comments and his own understanding from a Western point of view.
The last two chapters are so beautiful talking about Art, Mysticism in Islam I want to give it more than 5 stars! The language could be a barrier a bit, specially to get the exact Quran verse or Hadith and translate them from English to Arabic to know what he is referring to. Worth all the time invested in it. Apr 03, Aasem Bakhshi rated it it was amazing Shelves: religion , philosophy , favorites , owned , islamic-studies. I have never read such surreal walk-through of Islamic history, law, society and arts before.
In my view, this is characteristic of most perennialist literature for instance, Frithjof Schuon, Rene Guenon and Syeh Hussain Nasr that it drags the reader into deep and novel meanings of common concepts and cliches otherwise taken for granted. But by any means, this is not an easy read, and though these are just about odd pages, the narrative requires an extraordinary attention and careful readi I have never read such surreal walk-through of Islamic history, law, society and arts before.
But by any means, this is not an easy read, and though these are just about odd pages, the narrative requires an extraordinary attention and careful reading. The book may fail to make much impression upon post-modernist legal mind who is adamant to seek an almost Utopian authenticity in historical and social narratives; but then one wishes while reading the book that Eaton should have provided references for all the hadith and incidents that he makes use of to build an excellent exposition of what it really means to be a Muslim.
Mar 22, Hammad Ali rated it it was amazing Shelves: favorites. Most of the great works relating to Islam and Muslims that I've come across so far are mostly translated works. And the few that were written originally in English are mostly very simple or cover the political side of Islam written either by orientalists or Westerners who write about Islam as they're approaching something alien that needs to be handled with as much skepticism and cynicism as possible.
As such in my opinion at-least Islam has not fully come to the English language as of yet but Most of the great works relating to Islam and Muslims that I've come across so far are mostly translated works.
As such in my opinion at-least Islam has not fully come to the English language as of yet but over the last years a lot of great stuff is coming through so to come across any great original non-translated piece of writing on Islam in English is always great to find.
In short, the book is as brilliant as it gets. Eaton is a master of English. The way he articulates his arguments, his thoughts and his ideas is nothing short of brilliant. The book as such starts of with a rather academic feel and the subject matter is serious and thought provoking. But credit to Eaton's writing he makes it seem like the reader is reading a story book. The book as such takes all your conceptions and ideas about Islam whether you're a Muslim or not and throws them out the window.
It makes you re-examine and look at the Divine Majesty in a beautiful way. The book questions every act of worship you do and shows you the hidden meaning behind these acts. Or in other words it shows you the Divine mercy. Overall I would recommend this book to everyone whether interested in religion or not, hopefully in the end it will get you thinking about a lot of things and will end up becoming a book that you re-visit often to find more and more hidden gems. For me really grateful to have come across this and it goes straight into my Top 10 books shelf and can't personally wait to read all his other books.
Jul 12, Zayn Gregory rated it really liked it Shelves: islam. To draw one fibre from it is to find that this is attached, by countless unseen filaments, to all the rest.
The small fragment of 'good', lifted from the pattern, brings with it piece after piece of the whole structure. With the light come the shadows; and with everything positive come all the negative elements which are related to it either as cause or as effect.
Seyyed Hossein Nasr, who is almost unique among Muslim writers in his understanding both of traditional Islam and of the forces of subversion at work in the West, makes this point: 'Words and expressions have been used by many of these writers, in such a way as to betray the state of cultural shock and often the sense of inferiority vis-a-vis the West from which they suffer. Their writings reveal most of all a slavery of the mind to the norms and judgements of Western civilization.
Moreover, these norms are usually hidden under the veil of an "Islam" of which there often remains little more than a name and certain emotional attachments, an Islam which has become devoid of the intellectual and spiritual truth which stands at the heart of the Islamic revelation. The view first put forward by more or less hostile orientalists that Islamic civilization became decadent, 'stagnant' and 'sterile', from the moment it no longer produced scientists as the term is now understood , that is to say around the thirteenth century of the Christian era, is uncritically accepted by modernists and 'fundamentalists' alike.
This is compensated by a passionate faith in the present or imminent 'renaissance', and they do not see that decadence if the word has any application is greatly to be preferred to deviation.
Decadence is a symptom of weariness and laxity, whereas deviation takes the form of a malignant activity or dynamism directed towards false goals. Better a sleeping giant than a mad or demonic one. The inclination of many contemporary Muslims to turn their backs on a thousand years of historical and cultural development has its roots in the eighteenth century, before the West had made its impact upon Islam. There were at that time twelve particularly influential 'reformers' teaching and preaching in the haramain the 'two sanctuaries', Mecca and Medina.
They called for the purification of the religion from every element that could not be traced directly to the Qur'an or to the sayings and practice of the Prophet, and they condemned taqlid blind adherence to the opinions of earlier scholars , much as Protestants in the Christian world had preached a return to scriptural sources some years earlier. Muslim scholars have always been great travellers, at home everywhere in the 'House of Islam', and only five of these men were Arabs, the others being of Indian, Moroccan and Kurdish origin.
Pilgrim-scholars from every corner of the world would stay in the haramain for a year or two to study under them before returning home, and in this way their views were swiftly disseminated. But, with hindsight, the most important of the eighteenth century reformers was Muhammad Ibn Abdu'l-Wahhib He had studied in the haramain and travelled widely before returning to his village in a remote part of the Arabian peninsula, there to ally himself - with momentous historical consequences - with a tribal chieftain named Saud, whose descendants now rule over the greater part of the peninsula.
Appalled by the contrast between the Islamic ideal and the Muslim world discovered in the course of his travels, he concluded that few of the Muslims of his time had any right to call themselves Muslims; with passionate conviction and great eloquence he preached a simple and uncompromising doctrine of pure transcendence and of unquestioning obedience to the revealed Will of the Transcendent; there was no place in this doctrine for mysticism, the allegorical interpretation of the Qur'an, syncretism or adaptation.
This was true monotheism and everything else was false, damnable and un-Islamic. Time has passed and the cult of simplicity has only too often degenerated into a cult of banality, a process which has been hastened by the experience of Western domination. Islam, we are told, is so simple and straightforward, so easy to understand and to follow, that it has no need of explanation or interpretation. God is King. Man is His slave. The King has issued His orders.
It is for the slave to obey these orders or be damned. All that is required to reverse this lamentable situation is a return to the Qur'an and to the Sunnah of the Prophet. We have the Scripture, and that should suffice any man. It is indeed true that the essentials of Islam are clear and simple. As the final revelation of God's Guidance to His creatures it presents a stark confrontation: Man stands naked before his Maker, without any intermediary and with nothing to blur the immediacy of this encounter.
The rules governing personal life and social life have been set out with a clarity which leaves no room for misunderstanding; and, when all is said and done, the divine Mercy compensates for human weakness. No doubt this would suffice if human nature contained no complexities and no fissures, and if we had not been endowed with a searching intelligence which must analyse before it can achieve synthesis.
The rich development of Muslim thought and religious speculation over so many centuries is sufficient proof that this is not enough. Islam has been described by Europeans who have lived and worked in the Arab world as a 'Boy Scout religion', and it is precisely in this way that many of its spokesmen present it; an image that bears no relation to the splendours of the Baghdad Caliphate, Muslim Spain, the Sassanids in Iran, the Timurids in Central Asia, the Ottomans at the height of their power, and the host of philosophers, mystics and artists who were the glory of these various crystallizations of Islamic civilization.
Boy Scout precepts do little to answer the questions we ask or to assuage the soul's anguish. They satisfy neither Westerners nor educated Muslims, and the only reason that more of the latter have not drifted away from the religion is that, on the one hand, they have been able to interpret it as a political ideology in an age obsessed with political 'solutions' and, on the other, they have nowhere else to go.
The European or the American who turns his back on Christianity is still heir to a rich culture and has no reason to feel that he has become a 'non-person'. The child of Islam who turns away has empty hands and no longer knows who he is. Islamic culture is neither more nor less than an aspect of the religion; there is no secular culture whatsoever. Moreover, the community is still essentially a religious community, and to quit the religion is to leave the community.
However, it is not only contemporary Muslims who question the need for profundity, the need for theology and for a metaphysical approach to religion.
Many Christians do the same, to the great impoverishment of Christianity. God has chosen to create in certain men and women a type of intelligence which, by inner necessity, asks far-reaching questions about the nature of reality. This is a divine gift, though not without its dangers, as is the case with all gifts; it has, therefore, certain rights, including the right to receive answers to the questions which arise spontaneously within it.
In a sense these questions are posed by God Himself so that He may answer them and thereby enrich our understanding, and we are assured that He never gives us a genuine need without providing for its satisfaction.
What the intellectuals doubt today will eventually be doubted by simple people. Ideas which, on their first appearance, seem most abstract and farthest removed from the affairs of ordinary men and women have a way of percolating through the whole fabric of society, though they often suffer distortion in the process.
Given the very nature of modern civilization and the nature of its origins , the ideas current in our time are destructive of religious faith unless this faith is protected by an intellectual armour - and intellectual weapons - suited to the conditions of the late twentieth century. The traditional arguments in support of faith are no longer entirely effective, and it no longer seems 'natural' to believe in God and to believe in states of being beyond this present life.
Since the Qur'an addresses itself specifically to 'those who think' and who 'meditate' and, in effect, commands us to make full use of our mental faculties, Muslims are under an obligation to deepen and develop the intellectual bases of their faith and have no excuse for relying on unthinking obedience and emotional fervour to protect it against the searching questions of our time. The cult of simplicity or of platitude is expressed not only in expositions of Islam as a way of life but also in modern interpretations of the Qur'an.
One need only compare a popular modern commentary, sentimental or banal, with the great medieval commentaries, those of the rationalists, whose intellectual instruments were derived from Greek philosophy, those of the Sufis, who plumbed the depths of meaning beneath the surface of the text, and those of the grammarians, who analysed subtle shades of meaning behind every word and phrase, to see what an impoverishment has taken place.
This might best be illustrated by direct quotation, but it would be unkind to ridicule the efforts of sincere and pious men to communicate their love for the Book in this way; the point can be made just as effectively by means of a parody or pastiche without identifying the original from which, in fact, it departs very little. This commentary is on the opening verses of Surah 'By the sun and its radiance; by the moon which reflects it; by the day which reveals [the earthj, and by the night which enshrouds it The medieval commentators discovered profound significance in these simple lines, interpreting their symbolism with astonishing subtlety and speculative daring.
The modern commentary runs something like this:. The sun is at its clearest when it rises and it shines with a pure light. It is the source of our physical life, and how generous God is to give us life! Then there is the moon with its beautiful light, whispering to the human heart and inspiring poetic thoughts.
How nice it is to sit in the moonlight! Then comes the oath by the day, when the sun shines and the earth is lit up; but when night covers the earth it is the opposite to what happens in the day. The sun no longer shines. Everything is concealed from our sight and we are in darkness. How incomparably the holy Qur'an describes all this and how inspiring these verses are! Sincerity and good intentions do not guarantee effective communication, but the failure of most contemporary Muslim writers to express themselves in what is really an alien idiom merely reflects the extraordinary situation of Islam in the post-colonial period and in a world shaped entirely by occidental values and by ideologies which originate in the Dar-ul-Harb the 'House of Conflict', the world beyond the frontiers of the Faith.
It could be said that the Muslims 'awakened' if, for convenience, we use this dubious term to find themselves on a planet occupied by their enemies, obliged to imitate these enemies in everything if they were to survive their rude awakening. To understand just how extraordinary this situation is from the Muslim point of view, it is essential to understand something of the history of the confrontation between these two civilizations. Within a century of the Prophet's death in of the Christian era the Muslim Empire stretched from the borders of China to the Atlantic, from France to the outskirts of India, and from the Caspian Sea to the Sahara.
This astonishing expansion had been achieved by a people who, if they were known at all to the great world beyond the Arabian peninsula, had been dismissed as ignorant nomads. They had overrun something above four-and-a-half million square milies of territory and changed the course of history, subordinating Christianity to Islam in its homelands in the Near East and in North Africa and Spain, forcing the Roman Empire of Byzantium onto the defensive and converting the Empire of the Persians into a bulwark of Islam.
Human history tells of no other achievement comparable to this. Alexander had dazzled the ancient world by his conquests, but he left behind him only legends and a few inscriptions. Where the Arabs passed they created a civilization and a whole pattern of thought and of living which endured and still endures, and they decisively determined the future history of Europe, barring the way to the rich lands of the east and thereby provoking - many centuries later - the voyages of exploration to the west and to the south which were to nurture European power.
By the year the Muslims had crossed the formidable barrier of the Pyrenees and all Western Europe lay open before them. They were defeated by the Franks in a battle between what are now the cities of Tours and Poitiers, but it is doubtful whether this battle was in any sense decisive, and in any case the eastern wing of the army was already penetrating the Swiss Valais.
It seems more likely that the dark forests which lay ahead appeared uninviting, and the bitter chill of the so- called temperate lands must have seemed like the chill of death itself; and no doubt the great wave of expansion had, for the time being, exhausted itself and reached its natural limit. A few miles more and the story would have been very different, with a Sultan on the throne of France, his Emir in a palace by the Thames, and Europe's offspring populating North America under the banner of Islam.
The rapidity with which Islam spread across the known world of the seventh to eighth centuries was strange enough, but stranger still is the fact that no rivers flowed with blood, no fields were enriched with the corpses of the vanquished.
As warriors the Arabs might have been no better than others of their kind who had ravaged and slaughtered across the peopled lands but, unlike these others, they were on a leash. There were no massacres, no rapes, no cities burned.
The constant arrival of uneducated, non English-speaking immigrants from the subcontinent makes that more difficult. From his first marriage —50 , to the actress Kay Clayton, he was the father of Leo Eaton b.
Preston Muddock. He is buried in the Muslim Section of Brookwood Cemetery. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Most Muslim majority countries, and some Muslim minority countries, follow a mixed legal system, with positive laws and state courts, as well as sharia -based religious laws and religious courts. According to Jan Michiel Otto, "[a]nthropological research shows that people in local communities often do not distinguish clearly whether and to what extent their norms and practices are based on local tradition, tribal custom, or religion.
Other than applicable laws to Muslim women, there is gender-based variation in the process of testimony and acceptable forms of evidence in legal matters. In other cases, the testimony of two women equals that of one man.
According to verse of Islam's sacred text, both men and women have an independent economic position: 'For men is a portion of what they earn, and for women is a portion of what they earn. Ask God for His grace. God has knowledge of all things.
Bernard Lewis says that classical Islamic civilization granted free Muslim women relatively more property rights than women in the West, even as it sanctified three basic inequalities between master and slave, man and woman, believer and unbeliever. Women's property rights in the Quran are from parents and near relatives. A woman, according to Islamic tradition, does not have to give her pre-marriage possessions to her husband and receive a mahr dower which she then owns.
Property rights enabled some Muslim women to possess substantial assets and fund charitable endowments. In mid-sixteenth century Istanbul, The Quran grants inheritance rights to wife, daughter, and sisters of the deceased. The rules of inheritance are specified by a number of Quran verses, including Surah "Baqarah" chapter 2 verses and ; Surah "Nisa h " chapter 4 verses 7—11, 19 and 33; and Surah "Maidah" chapter 5 , verses — Three verses in Surah "Nisah" chapter 4 , verses 11, 12 and , describe the share of close relatives.
The religious inheritance laws for women in Islam are different from inheritance laws for non-Muslim women under common laws. The author and investment banker Harris Irfan narrates the story as follows:. She offered to sell it for dirhams and he turned her down. Then she asked for , then , at which point the exasperated woman scolded him. So they summoned another merchant and he solemnly valued the garment at dirhams.
Rather than profit from the woman's ignorance, Abu Hanifa had opted to settle for a fair trade, a principle he would abide by all his life — that the greedy should be regulated from taking advantage of the vulnerable. The fornicating woman and the fornicating man, flog each one of them with one hundred stripes. A man who is fornicator will not marry but a woman who is a fornicator or a polytheist; and a woman who is a fornicator will not marry but a man who is a fornicator or a polytheist.
And this i. Al-Quran Zina is an Islamic legal term referring to unlawful sexual intercourse. Although stoning for zina is not mentioned in the Quran, all schools of traditional jurisprudence agreed on the basis of hadith that it is to be punished by stoning if the offender is muhsan adult, free, Muslim, and having been married , with some extending this punishment to certain other cases and milder punishment prescribed in other scenarios.
Aside from "a few rare and isolated" instances from the pre-modern era and several recent cases, there is no historical record of stoning for zina being legally carried out. In 'qazf' when someone accuses a chaste woman without four witneses then he is to be punished with being flogged with eighty lashes. His testimony will become inadmissible forever unless he repents and improves However, in 'lian', when the husband accuses the wife of adultery without witnesses, he have to swear five times each to support his case.
If he takes oaths she is to be punished with flogging and stoning unless she too takes oaths in similar way to support her case, her oaths are upheld over his and she wil not be punished And those who accuse chaste women and never bring four witnesses, flog them eighty strips and never admit their testimony forever; indeed they themselves are impure.
Except those who repent after this and amend themselvess; then God is forgiving and merciful. And those who accuse their wives and do not have witnesses then witness of each one of them is four oaths by God that he is of truthfuls. And fifth that curse of God be on him if he is of liars.
And it can save her from punishment if she oaths by God four times that he is of liars. And fifth time that wrath of God be on her if he is of truthfuls. Rape is considered a serious sexual crime in Islam, and can be defined in Islamic law as: "Forcible illegal sexual intercourse by a man with a woman who is not legally married to him, without her free will and consent".
Rape charges can be brought and a case proven based on the sole testimony of the victim, providing that circumstantial evidence supports the allegations. It is these strict criteria of proof which lead to the frequent observation that where injustice against women does occur, it is not because of Islamic law. It happens either due to misinterpretation of the intricacies of the Sharia laws governing these matters, or cultural traditions; or due to corruption and blatant disregard of the law, or indeed some combination of these phenomena.
In the case of rape, the adult male perpetrator i. Rape laws in a number of Muslim-majority countries have been a subject of controversy. In some of these countries, such as Morocco, the penal code is neither based on Islamic law nor significantly influenced by it,  while in other cases, such as Pakistan's Hudood Ordinances , the code incorporates elements of Islamic law.
In Afghanistan and Dubai, some women who made accusations of rape have been charged with fornication or adultery. In Quran, surah equates two women as substitute for one man, in matters requiring witnesses. O ye who believe! When ye contract debt with each other for a fixed period of time, reduce them to writing.
Let a scribe write down faithfully as between the parties: let not the scribe refuse to write: as Allah has taught him, so let him write. Let him who incurs the liability dictate, but let him fear His Lord Allah, and not diminish aught of what he owes. If they party liable is mentally deficient, or weak, or unable himself to dictate, let his guardian dictate faithfully, and get two witnesses, out of your own men, and if there are not two men, then a man and two women, such as ye choose, for witnesses, so that if one of them errs, the other can remind her.
The witnesses should not refuse when they are called on For evidence. Disdain not to reduce to writing your contract for a future period, whether it be small or big: it is juster in the sight of Allah, More suitable as evidence, and more convenient to prevent doubts among yourselves but if it be a transaction which ye carry out on the spot among yourselves, there is no blame on you if ye reduce it not to writing.
The prophet said,"Isn't the witness of a woman equal to half of that of a man? He said, " This is deficiency of her mind".
Regarding the hadith , that is used to prove the half-testimony status, Ghamidi and members of his foundation, Al-Mawrid , argue against its reliability  and its common understanding.
Another Pakistani religious scholar Ishaq argues that acquiring conclusive evidence is important, regardless of whether it can be obtained from just one man or just one woman.
Ghamidi contends that the narration cannot be used in all general cases because it is related to the Qur'an verse whose subject is related only to financial matters. According to Ghamidi, regarding the verse Ibn al-Qayyim and Ibn Taymiyya also held similar views to his.
Al-Qayyim argued that the verse relates to the heavy responsibility of testifying by which an owner of wealth protects his rights, not with the decision of a court; the two are completely different from each other.
However, both Ibn al-Qayyim and Ibn Taymiyya did believe in the difference of probative value of men's and women's testimony. It is argued that even though Ibn al-Qayyim believed that women were more prone to making errors, instead of concluding a general discrimination from this, women's testimony was to be treated on an individual basis.
This is because Ibn al-Qayyim contended that in cases where a woman and man share all the Islamic good qualities of a witness, a woman's testimony corroborated by another woman may actually be considered stronger than the uncorroborated testimony of a man. Additionally, Ibn al-Qayyim also regarded the testimony of some exceptional women like those who transmitted the Hadith as doubtlessly greater than a single man of lesser esteem.
That makes them stronger than a single man or the likes of him. In Islamic law, testimony shahada is defined as attestation of knowledge with regard to a right of a second party against a third. It exists alongside other forms of evidence, such as the oath, confession, and circumstantial evidence.
The testimony of a man has twice the strength of that of a woman. However, with regard to hadd offenses and retaliation, the testimonies of female witnesses are not admitted at all. Classical commentators commonly explained the unequal treatment of testimony by asserting that women's nature made them more prone to error than men. Muslim modernists have followed the Egyptian reformer Muhammad Abduh in viewing the relevant scriptural passages as conditioned on the different gender roles and life experiences that prevailed at the time rather than women's innately inferior mental capacities, making the rule not generally applicable in all times and places.
Men are the protectors of women, because Allah has given the one more than the other, and because they support them from their means. Therefore the righteous women are devoutly obedient, and guard in the husband's absence what Allah would have them guard.
If you fear a breach between them then appoint an arbiter from his folks and an arbiter from her folks; if they desire reconciliation God will bring about between them; indeed God is All-knowing All-aware. Al-Quran, An-Nisa, 34 Even within the Quran itself, the most common use [ where? The laws concerning darar state that if a woman is being harmed in her marriage, she can have it annulled: physically assaulting a wife violates the marriage contract and is grounds for immediate divorce.
Jonathan A. Brown gives the wider scholarly tendency when it comes to the verse: The vast majority of the ulama across the Sunni schools of law inherited the Prophet's unease over domestic violence and placed further restrictions on the evident meaning of the 'Wife Beating Verse'. A leading Meccan scholar from the second generation of Muslims, Ata' bin Abi Rabah , counseled a husband not to beat his wife even if she ignored him but rather to express his anger in some other way.
Darimi , a teacher of both Tirmidhi and Muslim bin Hajjaj as well as a leading early scholar in Iran, collected all the Hadiths showing Muhammad's disapproval of beating in a chapter entitled 'The Prohibition on Striking Women'.
A thirteenth-century scholar from Granada, Ibn Faras, notes that one camp of ulama had staked out a stance forbidding striking a wife altogether, declaring it contrary to the Prophet's example and denying the authenticity of any Hadiths that seemed to permit beating.
Even Ibn Hajar , the pillar of late medieval Sunni Hadith scholarship, concludes that, contrary to what seems to be an explicit command in the Quran, the Hadiths of the Prophet leave no doubt that striking one's wife to discipline her actually falls under the Shariah ruling of 'strongly disliked' or 'disliked verging on prohibited. In recent years, numerous prominent scholars in the tradition of Orthodox Islam have issued fatwas legal opinions against domestic violence.
According to tasawwuf , woman is the light of Allah's beauty shed onto this earth. Again in [the] Mathanawi Rumi says a man who is wise and fine-spirited is understanding and compassionate towards a woman, and never wants to hurt or injure her. Some scholars   claim Islamic law, such as verse of Quran, allows and encourages domestic violence against women, when a husband suspects nushuz disobedience, disloyalty, rebellion, ill conduct in his wife.
There are a number of translations of this verse from the Arabic original, and all vary to some extent. IX of Al-Tabari's history. Ibn 'Abbas, a companion of the Prophet also the uncle of the Prophet, is recorded in the Tafsir of al-Tabari for verse as saying that beating without severity is using a siwak small tooth cleaning object or something similar to it.
Narrated Mu'awiyah al-Qushayri: Mu'awiyah asked: Messenger of Allah, what is the right of the wife of one of us over him? He replied: That you should give her food when you eat, clothe her when you clothe yourself, do not strike her on the face, do not revile her or separate yourself from her except in the house. Abu Dawud said: The meaning of "do not revile her" is, as you say: "May Allah revile you".
The Arabic phrase mentioned above is here translated, "hit them, but without causing injury or leaving a mark. He praised and glorified Allah, and reminded and exhorted the people. Then he said: 'I enjoin good treatment of women, for they are prisoners with you, and you have no right to treat them otherwise, unless they commit clear indecency.
If they do that, then forsake them in their beds and hit them, but without causing injury or leaving a mark. If they obey you, then do not seek means of annoyance against them. You have rights over your women and your women have rights over you.
Your rights over your women are that they are not to allow anyone whom you dislike to tread on your bedding furniture , nor allow anyone whom you dislike to enter your houses.
And their right over you are that you should treat them kindly with regard to their clothing and food. There have been several fatwas against domestic violence. Some conservative translations suggest Muslim husbands are permitted to use light force on their wives, and others claim permissibly to strike them with a Miswak and chastise them. According to another tradition, he forbade the beating of any woman with the words, "Never beat God's handmaidens.
In practice, the legal doctrine of many Islamic nations, in deference to Sharia law, have refused to include, consider or prosecute cases of domestic violence, limiting legal protections available to Muslim women. Article 53 of the United Arab Emirates' penal code acknowledges the right of a "chastisement by a husband to his wife and the chastisement of minor children" so long as the assault does not exceed the limits prescribed by Sharia.
Turkey was the first country in Europe to ratify on 14 March the Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence ,  which is known as the Istanbul Convention because it was first opened for signature in Turkey's largest city on 11 May In the United States, a recent study done by the Institute for Social Policy and Understanding found that, "Domestic violence occurs in the Muslim community as often as it does in Christian and non- affiliated communities, but Muslim victims are more likely to involve faith leaders.
American Muslim respondents reported that a faith leader was informed of the domestic violence about half the time, a significantly higher rate than any other faith group surveyed in the poll.
Among classical Muslim authors, the notion of love was developed along three conceptual lines, conceived in an ascending hierarchical order: natural love, intellectual love, and divine love.
In traditional Islamic societies, love between men and women was widely celebrated,  and both the popular and classical literature of the Muslim world is replete with works on this theme. Throughout Islamic history, intellectuals, theologians, and mystics have extensively discussed the nature and characteristics of romantic love ' ishq.
The growth of affection mawadda into passionate love ishq received its most probing and realistic analysis in The Ring of the Dove by the Andalusian scholar Ibn Hazm. In Islamic mysticism or Sufism, romantic love is viewed as a metaphysical metaphor for the love of God.
The most intense and perfect contemplation of God is through women, and the most intense union is the conjugal act. This emphasis on the sublimity of the conjugal act holds true for both this world and the next: the fact that Islam considers sexual relationships one of the ultimate pleasures of paradise is well-known; moreover, there is no suggestion that this is for the sake of producing children.
Prominent figures in Islamic mysticism have elaborated on this theme. Do you think that which would take him far from his Lord was made lovable to him? Of course not. That which would bring him near to his Lord was made lovable to him.
On the contrary, one of the perfections of the gnostic is love for them, for this is a prophetic heritage and a divine love. For the Prophet said, '[women] were made lovable to me. Ponder this chapter — you will see wonders! She is the Creator — you could say that she is not created.
Female beauty is a central theme in Islam, which regards it as "the most direct visible manifestation of God's beauty, gentleness, mercy and forgiveness". The metaphysical and cosmological significance of marriage within Islam — particularly within Sufism or Islamic mysticism — is difficult to overstate.
The relationship and interplay between male and female is viewed as nothing less than that between heaven represented by the husband and earth symbolised by the wife. Marriage is the central institution of family life and society, and therefore the central institution of Islam. Within the marriage contract itself, the bride has the right to stipulate her own conditions.
When agreement to the marriage has been expressed and witnessed, those present recite the Al-Fatiha prayer the opening chapter of the Quran. In contrast to the Western and Orient world where divorce was relatively uncommon until modern times, divorce was a more common occurrence in certain parts of the late medieval Muslim world. In the Mamluk Sultanate and Ottoman Empire , the rate of divorce was high. Destiny as conceived by Islam is, thus, by no stretch of imagination, fatal to the freedom of conduct and unfoldment of one's inherent possibilities; it is a source of inspiration and encouragement and opens up vast fields of human activity.
It is not a message of despondency and despair, but a source of solace, comfort and inspiration and a powerful means of evoking a sense of piety and humility and self-surrender to the Will of God. It does not inculcate in mind frustration and pessimism, making his life dark and dreary, devoid of hope and promise for the future, but it teaches him to put his heart and soul in the sublime work as assigned to him by his Master.
Abdullah b. Mas'ud reported that Allah's Messenger may peace be upon him who is the most truthful of the human beings and his being truthful is a fact said: Verily your creation is on this wise.
The constituents of one of you are collected for forty days in his mother's womb in the form of blood, after which it becomes a clot of blood in another period of forty days.
Then it becomes a lump of flesh and forty days later Allah sends His angel to it with instructions concerning four things, so the angel writes down his livelihood, his death, his deeds, his fortune and misfortune. By Him, besides Whom there is no god, that one amongst you acts like the people deserving Paradise until between him and Paradise there remains but the distance of a cubit, when suddenly the writing of destiny overcomes him and he begins to act like the denizens of Hell and thus enters Hell, and another one acts in the way of the denizens of Hell, until there remains between him and Hell a distance of a cubit that the writing of destiny overcomes him and then he begins to act like the people of Paradise and enters Paradise.
This hadith has been reported on the authority of A'mash with the same chain of transmitters and in the hadith transmitted on the authority of Waki' the words are : "The creation of any one of you is like this that semen is collected in the womb of the mother for forty nights," and in the hadith transmitted on the authority of Shu'ba the words are : "Forty nights and forty days.
Hudhaifa b. Usaid reported directly from Allah's Messenger may peace be upon him that lie said: When the drop of semen remains in the womb for forty or fifty days or forty nights, the angel comes and says : My Lord, will he be good or evil? And both these things would be written. Then the angel says: My Lord, would he be male or female? And both these things are written. And his deeds and actions, his death, his livelihood; these are also recorded.
Then his document of destiny is rolled and there is no,addition to and subtraction from it. Mas'ud reported: Evil one is he who is evil in the womb of his mother and the good one is he who takes lesson from the fate of others. The narrator came to a person from amongst the Companion of Allah's Me ssenger may peace be upon him who was called Hudhaifa b. Usaid Ghifari and said: How can a person be an evil one without cornmittilng an evil deed? Thereupon the person said to him: You are surprised at this, whereas I have heard Allah's Messenger may peace be upon him as saving: When forty nights pass after the semen gets into the womb, Allah sends the angel and gives him the shape.
Then he creates his sense of hearing, sense of sight, his skin, his flesh, his bones, and then says: My Lord, would he be male or female? And your Lord decides as He desires and the angel then puts down that also and then says: My Lord, what about his age? And your Lord decides as He likes it and the angel puts it down.
Then he says: My Lord, what about his livelihood? And then the Lord decides as He likes and the angel writes it down, and then the angel gets out with his scroll of destiny in his hand and nothing is added to it and nothing is subtracted from it. This hadith has been narrated on the authority of 'Abdullah b. Mas'ud through another chain of transmitters. Usaid al-Ghifari who said : I listened with these two ears of mine Allahs Messenger may peace be upon him as saying: The semen stays in the womb for forty nights, then the angel, gives it a shape.
Zubair said: I think that he said: One who fashions that and decides whether he would be male or female. Then he the angel says: Would his limbs be full or imperfect? And then the Lord makes thein full and perfect or otherwise as He desires. Homepage Catalogue Islam and the Destiny of Man.
Search for:.Whether the fate of man is predestined or he himself is the architect of it, is a question which has been very often discussed by vestiny of all think like a winner by walter doyle staples free download. This problem is significantly important as no sensible man. Faith in Taqdir Destiny has a very deep impact upon our lives and we always find our lives oscillating between determinism and freewill. As a man looks around himself and looks to his own self and within himself, he finds that there are hundred ot one things in shaping and reshaping of which he has islam and the destiny of man free download hand, e. He finds himself absolutely powerless. As he nan to himself he finds that there are so many things In him which are beyond his control, viz. In all these aspects of life he finds himself helpless before the Great and Mighty Power that created him. On the other hand, there are so many things in which man finds himself eagle pcb software free download with crack empowered. As he looks to the marvellous achievements of man despite all odds, he finds it difficult to believe that he is a mere puppet in the mighty islam and the destiny of man free download of Nature. This problem of predestination and freewill, in which man finds his life hanging, has been adequately solved by the Qur'an and the Sunnah. We give below a brief summary of their elucidations. The first principle which Islam lays down in regard to Taqdir is that man is neither completely the master of his fate nor is he bound to the blind law of predestination. So far as the sovereignty of Allah's Will is concerned, it is all-pervading and nothing falls outside its orbit. Not even a leaf, therefore, stirs without His Will. It downllad His Will that prevails everywhere. To God belongs the sovereignty of Heavens and the Earth. He created what He pleaseth, giving to whom He pleaseth females and to thd He islam and the destiny of man free download males or conjoining them males and females, and He maketh whom He pleaseth barren, verify He hath knowledge and power xlii. Men are, islam and the destiny of man free download, completely subordinate to the overruling power of God, they cannot do anything unless God wills so. Whom he sendeth stray, thou wilt not find a patron to set him right xviii. His islam and the destiny of man free download grasp islam and the destiny of man free download, therefore, over everything. The Almighty Lord,Who has created everything and has determined its nature and fref, has in His infinite wisdom and mercy conferred upon man a limited autonomy according to which a man is free to do or not to do dowload certain thing. It ddestiny because of this autonomy enjoyed by man islam and the destiny of man free download he is hold accountable for his deeds. The concept of human responsibility and that of his answerability for his deeds and misdeeds becomes meaningless if he is supposed kan be deprived of this autonomy. There are, a large number of verses destinj the Holy Qur'an which make a pointed reference to the autonomy conferred upon man. Gai Eaton's Islam and the Destiny of Man is a wide-ranging study of the religion of how Islam has shaped the hearts and minds of Muslims down the centuries. Original filename: Islam and the Destiny of onoroff.biz Download original PDF file doorway to destiny guide review free download pdf. Islam & the Destiny of Man - Gai Eaton (Introduction to Islam) - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free. Islam & the. Islam and the Destiny of Man by Charles Le Gai Eaton is a wide-ranging study of the Muslim religion from a unique point of view. The author, a former member of. kmAND THE DESTINY OF MANCharles LeCai Eaton Copyrighted MaterialISLAM ANDTH^ DESTINYOFMANC h a r l e i. Charles le Gai Eaton was a British diplomat, writer and Sufist Islamic scholar. Contents From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Islam and the Destiny of Man () In the same article, Eaton called for the creation of a British Islamic identity: "It is time for the Muslims in Britain to settle down, to find their own way, to form. The experiences of Muslim women vary widely between and within different societies. At the Bernard Lewis says that classical Islamic civilization granted free Muslim women She offered to sell it for dirhams and he turned her down. In Islam and the Destiny of Man, the Swiss-born diplomat Charles le Gai Eaton. The first principle which Islam lays down in regard to Taqdir is that man is Allah does not compel belief and leaves the people free to believe or disbelieve (vi. In other words, "freedom associated with speech" Most of us totally backed. Error rating book. Islam and the West. We live in an age of fitnah. There are today many educated Muslims who share Cohen's contempt for traditional patterns of rulership. It is not an easy read though it isn't obtuse either and someone who doesn't have a strong background in orthodox theology may be convinced by some of his more unorthodox views. In this series, under the general editorship of Seyyed Hossein Nasr, works of a scholarly nature which at the same time treat the spiritual aspects of the Islamic tradition will be made available to the Englishspeaking public. Return to Book Page. As humans, our independence is there in that we are created with free will, but not there in that we are dependent upon the Creator for that free will. He lacks their strengths and is immune from their weaknesses; immune, above all, from the psychological 'complexes' which are the result of their recent history. Those who sought power at the highest levels took a gamble with their lives, whereas ordinary people whose names we will never know relied on grassroots social structures to govern their lives.