Get started with a FREE account. It's not selfish. Please enter your name. The E-mail message field is required. Please enter the message. Please verify that you are not a robot. Would you also like to submit a review for this item? You already recently rated this item. Your rating has been recorded. Write a review Rate this item: 1 2 3 4 5. Preview this item Preview this item. Good teaching, we believe, should be creatively tailored to the different learning styles of students and should use strategies that make learning easier.
Make It Stick turns fashionable ideas like these on their head. Drawing on recent discoveries in cognitive psychology and other disciplines, the authors offer concrete techniques for becoming more productive learners.
Memory plays a central role in our ability to carry out complex cognitive tasks, such as applying knowledge to problems never before encountered and drawing inferences from facts already known.
More complex and durable learning come from self-testing, introducing certain difficulties in practice,. Speaking most urgently to students, teachers, trainers, and athletes, Make It Stick "will. Good teaching, we believe, should be creatively tailored to the different learning styles of students and should use strategies that make learning easier.
Drawing on recent discoveries in cogn it ive psychology and other disciplines, the authors of fer concrete techniques for becoming more productive learners. Memory plays a central role in our abil it y to carry out complex cogn it ive tasks, such as applying knowledge to problems never before encountered and drawing inferences from facts already known.
New insights into how memory is encoded, consolidated, and later retrieved have led to a better understanding of how we learn. In one experiment, students made errors while studying, which improved their learning, yet they didn't recognize this benefit. Numerous studies reveal that students drop flashcards too fast due to poor metacognition and awareness of their own knowledge. In contrast, methods supported by scientific evidence — including retrieval — are robust and reliable methods that improve student learning in the classroom.
Pashler et al. To make our points we use, in addition to tested science, anecdotes from people like Matt Brown whose work requires mastery of complex knowledge and skills, stories that illustrate the underlying principles of how we learn and remember.
Discussion of the research studies themselves is kept to a minimum, but you will find many of them cited in the notes at the end of the book if you care to dig further.
People commonly believe that if you expose yourself to something enough times— say, a textbook passage or a set of terms from an eighth grade biology class—you can burn it into memory. Not so. Many teachers believe that if they can make learning easier and faster, the learning will be better. Our faith in this runs deep, because most of us see fast gains during the learning phase of massed practice. Rereading has three strikes against it.
It is time consuming. And it often involves a kind of unwitting selfdeception, as growing familiarity with the text comes to feel like mastery of the content. The hours immersed in rereading can seem like due diligence, but the amount of study time is no measure of mastery.
Consider Matt Brown, the pilot. When Matt was ready to advance from piston planes, he had a whole new body of knowledge to master in order to get certified for the business jet he was hired to pilot. We asked him to describe this process. It might be a sudden decompression, a thrust reverser coming unlocked in flight, an engine failure, an electrical fire. Then something interesting happened. You hear that story and, believe me, that schematic comes to life and sticks with you. Jet fuel can commonly have a little water in it, and when it gets cold at high altitude, the water will condense out, and it can freeze and block the line.
So whenever you refuel, you make good and sure to look for a sign on the fuel truck saying the fuel has Prist in it, which is an antifreeze. The next eleven days were spent in a mix of classroom and flight simulator training. Here, Matt described the kind of active engagement that leads to durable learning, as the pilots had to grapple with their aircraft to demonstrate mastery of standard operating procedures, respond to unexpected situations, and drill on the rhythm and physical memory of the movements that are required in the cockpit for dealing with them.
In a simulator, the abstract is made concrete and personal. A simulator is also a series of tests, in that it helps Matt and his instructors calibrate their judgment of where he needs to focus to bring up his mastery.
In fact, what students are advised to do is often plain wrong. Louis PostDispatch offering study advice shows a kid with his nose buried in a book. Repeat, repeat, repeat! Repeating what you have to remember can help burn it into your memory. Similarly, a recent study asked faculty and students who worked in the Psychology Building at UCLA to identify the fire extinguisher closest to their office. Most failed the test.
One professor, who had been at UCLA for twenty-five years, left his safety class and decided to look for the fire extinguisher closest to his office. He discovered that it was actually right next to his office door, just inches from the doorknob he turned every time he went into his office. Thus, in this case, even years of repetitive exposure did not result in his learning where to grab the closest extinguisher if his wastebasket caught fire.
The first item in each pair was always a noun. After reading the listed pairs six times, participants were then told that they would be getting a list of nouns that they would be asked to remember.
For one group of people, the nouns were the same ones they had just read six times in the prior reading phase; for another group, the nouns to be learned were different from those they had previously read. Mere repetition did not enhance learning. Subsequent studies by many researchers have pressed further into questions of whether repeated exposure or longer periods of holding an idea in mind contribute to later recall, and these studies have confirmed and elaborated on the findings that repetition by itself does not lead to good long-term memory.
In a article in Contemporary Educational Psychology, Washington University scientists reported on a series of studies they conducted at their own school and at the University of New Mexico to shed light on rereading as a strategy to improve understanding and memory of prose.
Like most research, these studies stood on the shoulders of earlier work by others; some showed that when the same text is read multiple times the same inferences are made and the same connections between topics are formed, and others suggested modest benefits from rereading. These benefits had been found in two different situations.
In the first, some students read and immediately reread study material, whereas other students read the material only once. Both groups took an immediate test after reading, and the group who had read twice performed a bit better than the group who had read once.
However, on a delayed test the benefit of immediate rereading had worn off, and the rereaders performed at the same level as the one-time readers. In the other situation, students read the material the first time and then waited some days before they reread it. This group, having done spaced readings of the text, performed better on the test than the group who did not reread the material. A total of students read five different passages taken from textbooks and Scientific American. The students were at two different universities; some were high-ability readers, and others were low-ability; some students read the material only once, and others read it twice in succession.
Then all of them responded to questions to demonstrate what they had learned and remembered. In these experiments, multiple readings in close succession did not prove to be a potent study method for either group, at either school, in any of the conditions tested.
In fact, the researchers found no rereading benefit at all under these conditions. Yet surveys of college students confirm what professors have long known: highlighting, underlining, and sustained poring over notes and texts are the most-used study strategies, by far. However, repeated reading provides the illusion of mastery of the underlying ideas. The fact that you can repeat the phrases in a text or your lecture notes is no indication that you understand the significance of the precepts they describe, their application, or how they relate to what you already know about the subject.
Too common is the experience of a college professor answering a knock on her office door only to find a first-year student in distress, asking to discuss his low grade on the first test in introductory psychology. How is it possible? He attended all the lectures and took diligent notes on them. He read the text and highlighted the critical passages. How did he study for the test? How could it be that he had pulled a D on the exam? Had he used the set of key concepts in the back of each chapter to test himself?
While he was reading, had he thought of converting the main points of the text into a series of questions and then later tried to answer them while he was studying? Had he at least rephrased the main ideas in his own words as he read? Had he tried to relate them to what he already knew? Had he looked for examples outside the text? The answer was no in every case. The illusion of mastery is an example of poor metacognition: what we know about what we know.
The upshot is that even the most diligent students are often hobbled by two liabilities: a failure to know the areas where their learning is weak—that is, where they need to do more work to bring up their knowledge—and a preference for study methods that create a false sense of mastery.
It embodies an obvious and profound truth, for without creativity where would our scientific, social, or economic breakthroughs come from? Besides which, accumulating knowledge can feel like a grind, while creativity sounds like a lot more fun. But of course the dichotomy is false.
But the sentiment has gained some currency as a reaction to standardized testing, fearing that this kind of testing leads to an emphasis on memorization at the expense of high-level skills. These are the fruits of variety in the practice of new skills, and of striving, reflection, and mental rehearsal. Memorizing facts is like stocking a construction site with the supplies to put up a house.
Mastery requires both the possession of ready knowledge and the conceptual understanding of how to use it. The would-be neurosurgeon in her first year of med school has to memorize the whole nervous system, the whole skeletal system, the whole muscular system, the humeral system. Her success will depend on diligence, of course, but also on finding study strategies that will enable her to learn the sheer volume of material required in the limited hours available.
Testing: Dipstick versus Learning Tool There are few surer ways to raise the hackles of many students and educators than talking about testing. Online forums and news articles are besieged by readers who charge that emphasis on testing favors memorization at the expense of a larger grasp of context or creative ability; that testing creates extra stress for students and gives a false measure of ability; and so on. One of the most striking research findings is the power of active retrieval—testing—to strengthen memory, and that the more effortful the retrieval, the stronger the benefit.
Think flight simulator versus PowerPoint lecture. The act of retrieving learning from memory has two profound benefits. Two, recalling what you have learned causes your brain to reconsolidate the memory, which strengthens its connections to what you already know and makes it easier for you to recall in the future. In effect, retrieval—testing—interrupts forgetting. Consider an eighth grade science class.
For the class in question, at a middle school in Columbia, Illinois, researchers arranged for part of the material covered during the course to be the subject of low-stakes quizzing with feedback at three points in the semester. Another part of the material was never quizzed but was studied three times in review. In a test a month later, which material was better recalled? Both of these cases—the research in the classroom and the experience of Matt Brown in updating his knowledge—point to the critical role of retrieval practice in keeping our knowledge accessible to us when we need it.
The power of active retrieval is the topic of Chapter 2. A great deal of what we think we know about how to learn is taken on faith and based on intuition but does not hold up under empirical research. Persistent illusions of knowing lead us to labor at unproductive strategies; as recounted in Chapter 3, this is true even of people who have participated in empirical studies and seen the evidence for themselves, firsthand.
Illusions are potent persuaders. One of the best habits a learner can instill in herself is regular selfquizzing to recalibrate her understanding of what she does and does not know. The good news is that we now know of simple and practical strategies that anybody can use, at any point in life, to learn better and remember longer: various forms of retrieval practice, such as low-stakes quizzing and self-testing, spacing out practice, interleaving the practice of different but related topics or skills, trying to solve a problem before being taught the solution, distilling the underlying principles or rules that differentiate types of problems, and so on.
In the chapters that follow we describe these in depth. At the end, in Chapter 8, we pull it all together with specific tips and examples for putting these tools to work. Ebersold is a neurosurgeon. The injury had brain protruding, and he recognized it as a gunshot wound. It must have been pretty much spent, or it would have gone deeper. He carries himself with a midwestern modesty that belies a career that counts a long list of high-profile patients who have sought out his services.
When President Ronald Reagan needed treatment for injuries after a fall from his horse, Ebersold participated in the surgery and postsurgical care. Following a long career at Mayo, Mike had returned to help out at the clinic in Wisconsin, feeling indebted to it for his early medical training. The hunter whose bad luck put him in the way of an errant gauge slug was luckier than he likely knows that Mike was on the job that day.
The bullet had entered an area of the skull beneath which there is a large venous sinus, a soft-tissue channel that drains the brain cavity. As he examined the hunter, Ebersold knew from experience that when he opened up the wound, there was a high probability he would find this vein was torn.
You review the steps, A, B, C, and D. You set up the operating room, telling them ahead of time what you might be encountering. When Ebersold removed the bullet, the fractured bone chips fell away, and the vein let loose in a torrent. Now it becomes reflex, mechanical. These plugs of muscle served to close the vein without deflecting its natural shape or tearing its tissue.
In the sixty or so seconds it took to do, the patient lost another two hundred cubic centimeters of blood, but once the plugs were in place, the bleeding stopped. But this patient was one of the fortunate who can. He was minus some peripheral vision but otherwise remarkably unscathed from a very close brush with mortality.
How can I take a bigger bite with my needle, or a smaller bite, or should the stitches be closer together? What if I modified it this way or that way? Reflection can involve several cognitive activities that lead to stronger learning: retrieving knowledge and earlier training from memory, connecting these to new experiences, and visualizing and mentally rehearsing what you might do differently next time.
It was this kind of reflection that originally had led Ebersold to try a new technique for repairing the sinus vein at the back of the head, a technique he practiced in his mind and in the operating room until it became the kind of reflexive maneuver you can depend on when your patient is spouting blood at two hundred cubic centimeters a minute.
Leave a Reply 1 Response Nice. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. Need an account?Faster previews. Personalized experience. Get started with a FREE account. It's not selfish. It's necessary. Load more similar PDF files. PDF Drive investigated dozens of problems and listed the biggest global issues facing the world today. Let's Change The World Together. Pdfdrive:hope Give books away. Get books you want. Not loaded yet? Try Again. Report Close Quick Download Make it stick the science of successful learning free download to remote make it stick the science of successful learning free download. Documents can only be sent to your Kindle devices from e-mail accounts that you added to your Approved Personal Jingling traffic software in english free download E-mail List. What's the problem with this file? Promotional spam Copyrighted material Offensive language or threatening Something else. Free Download Make It Stick: The Science of Successful Learning Best Book by Peter C. Brown, Download Best Book Make It Stick: The Science of Successful. Make It Stick: The Science of Successful Learning. Pages·· KB·1, Downloads·. Descripción: Helps you develop techniques to learn faster Description. M A K E I T ST ICK make it stick The Science of Successful Learning. Download Make It Stick: The Science of Successful Learning by Peter C. Brown in PDF EPUB format complete free. Brief Summary of Book: Make. Download our free resources for book clubs, including: Discussion questions for each chapter. Sketchnotes for each chapter. Additional readings and research. ->>>Download: Make It Stick: The Science of Successful Learning PDF ->>>Read Online: Make It Stick: The Science of Successful Learning PDF Make It Stick: The. Get this from a library! Make it stick: the science of successful learning. [Peter C Brown; Henry L Roediger, III; Mark A McDaniel] -- "To most of us, learning. Make it Stick: The Science of Successful Learning free download pdf. Make it Stick: The Science of Successful Learning pdf free. Make it Stick: The Science of. Here, we examine the insightful findings within: "MAKE IT STICK - The Science of Successful Learning" by. Peter C. Brown - a magnificent story teller- and two. We can learn how to learn, as well as improve our abilities through learning. Click here to order the book online. I actually recently read an article about how kids who get too used to the instant response style that comes with on-screen time, especially from smartphone use, do tend to become prefer this style of interaction. Generic filters Hidden label. Susan McMillan says: July 19, The opening section explains how understanding brain neuroplasticity changes belief in fixed intelligence. A few words about book author Peter C. Hi, Susan! Contact Us. Jennifer Gonzalez says: August 18, All of these brain-friendly strategies serve to encourage singers' active participation in rehearsals, with the goal of motivating beautiful, inspired, and memorable performances. These ideas and tips are useful for students, teachers, trainers, and anyone who believes in lifelong learning. Speaking most urgently to students, teachers, trainers, and atheletes, Make It Stick will appeal to all those interested in the challenge of lifelong learning and self-improvement. Kim says: October 28,