These insights are enhanced by detailed explanations of the microbiological and biochemical processes that underpin fermentation, while an account of its fascinating history provides readers with richly contextualizing background knowledge. New to this edition are two additional chapters. One discusses the role that fermentation plays in the production of spirits and other distilled beverages, whereas another focuses on cocoa, coffee, and fermented cereal products.
Furthermore, key chapters on microorganisms and metabolism have been expanded and elaborated upon, and are complemented by other relevant revisions and additions made throughout the book, ensuring that it is as up-to-date and applicable as possible.
This essential text includes: Discussions of major fermented foods from across the globe Background information on the science and history behind food fermentation Information on relevant industrial processes, technologies, and scientific discoveries Two new chapters covering distilled spirits and cocoa, coffee, and cereal products Expanded chapters on microorganisms and metabolism Microbiology and Technology of Fermented Foods, Second Edition is a definitive reference tool that will be of great interest and use to industry professionals, academics, established or aspiring food scientists, and anyone else working with fermented foods.
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Back cover copy The revised and expanded text on food fermentation microbiology With this second edition of Microbiology and Technology of Fermented Foods, Robert Hutkins brings fresh perspectives and updated content to his exhaustive and engaging text on food fermentations.
Table of contents Preface ix Acknowledgments xi 1 Introduction to fermented foods 1 2 Microorganisms 25 3 Metabolism and physiology 65 4 Starter cultures 93 5 Cultured dairy products 6 Cheese 7 Fermented meats 8 Fermented vegetables 9 Bread 10 Beer 11 Wine 12 Vinegar 13 Distilled spirits 14 Fermented foods from the Far East 15 Cocoa, coffee, and cereal fermentations Index show more. About Robert W.
Hutkins Robert W. His research is focused on the metabolism of prebiotic carbohydrates by lactic acid and probiotic bacteria, and their role in gastrointestinal health. He has published widely on probiotics, prebiotics, and fermented foods, and he currently serves on the Board of Directors for the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics.
Rating details. Book ratings by Goodreads. Goodreads is the world's largest site for readers with over 50 million reviews. Plantarum , Leuconostoc lactis , and Enterococcus casseliflavus [ 68 ]. Pickles from various vegetables and fruits such as mango Mangifera indica L. Khalpi is a cucumber pickle popular during summer months in Nepal [ 27 ].
When the pH attains at about 4. The final product has an acidity of 0. Similarly, sweet potato lacto-pickles may serve as an additional source of pickle with usual beneficial probiotic properties [ 72 ].
Different varieties of onions Allium cepa such as sweet, white and yellow storage were used for LA fermentation. White and yellow storage onions are typically used for processing due to their high solid content, so they were chosen for fermentation. Sweet cherry Prunus avium L.
Italy, together with United States, Iran, and Turkey, is one of the main world producers of sweet cherries [ 73 ]. This balanced material represents a valuable product as far as nutrition and health are concerned [ 74 ]. Red beets were evaluated as a potential substrate for the production of probiotic beet juice by four species of lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus , L.
Spontaneous cauliflower fermentation is commonly encountered in many countries with local variations depending mainly upon tradition and availability of raw materials. The consumption of LA fermented vegetable juices lacto-juice has increased in many countries.
Lacto-juices are produced mainly from cabbage, red beet, carrot, celery, and tomato [ 4 ]. They can be produced by either of the following procedures: i usual way of vegetable fermentation and then processed by pressing the juice manufacture from sauerkraut ; ii fermentation of vegetable mash or juice.
There are three types of lactic fermentation of vegetable juices: i spontaneous fermentation by natural microflora; ii fermentation by starter cultures that are added into raw materials; iii fermentation of heat-treated materials by starter cultures.
For fermentation of juices of highest quality, it is imperative to use commercially supplied starter cultures such as L. The criteria used for finding out suitability of a strain are as follows [ 76 ]: i the rate and total production of LA, change in pH, loss of nutritionally important substances; ii decrease in nitrate concentration and production of biogenic amines BAs ; iii ability of substrate to accept a starter culture; iv type of metabolism and ability of culture to create desirable sensory properties of fermented products.
The genus Lactobacillus is a heterogeneous group of LAB with important application in food and feed fermentation. Lactobacilli are used as probiotics inoculants and as starters in fermented food [ 77 ].
The genus Lactobacillus is Gram-positive organisms which produce lactic acid by fermentation which belongs to the large group of LAB.
Other genera such as Lactococcus , Enterococcus , Oenococcus , Pediococcus , Streptococcus , Leuconostoc , and Lactobacillus are also considered in LAB group due to lactic acid production ability [ 78 ].
The genus Lactobacillus is a heterogeneous group of LAB with important implications in food and feed fermentation. Lactobacilli are currently used as probiotics, silage inoculants, and as starters in fermented food [ 77 ]. The genus Lactobacillus belongs to the large group of LAB, which are all Gram-positive organisms which produce lactic acid by fermentation. Lactobacillus is rod shaped, often organized in chain belonging to a large group within a family Lactobacillaceae.
They grow well in anaerobic condition and strictly fermentative in nature. Lactobacillus is generally divided into two groups depending on the ability of the sugar fermentation: homofermentative species, converting sugars mostly into lactic acid and heterofermentative species, converting sugars into lactic acid, acetic acid and CO 2. LAB can influence the flavour of fermented foods in a variety of ways. During fermentation, lactic acid is produced due to the metabolism of sugars.
As a result, the sweetness tastes will likely decrease as sourness increases [ 76 ]. Lactobacilli prefer relatively acidic conditions ranges from pH 5. It can be found in a wide ranges of ecological niches such as plant, animal, raw milks, and in insects [ 79 ].
Due to the wide verity in habitat Lactobacillus possess a wide range of metabolites versatility in the LAB group. It has been used for food preservation, starter for dairy products, fermented vegetables, fish, and sausages as well as silage inoculants for decades. Lactobacillus is proposed as potential probiotics due to its potential therapeutic and prophylactic attributes. The Weissella species are Gram-positive, catalase negative, non-spore-forming, heterofermentative, nonmotile, irregular, or coccoid rod-shaped organisms [ 83 ].
Members of the genus Weissella have been isolated from a variety of sources, such as fresh vegetables and fermented silage [ 84 — 86 ]. The genus Weissella encompasses a phylogenetically coherent group of lactic acid bacteria and includes eight Leuconostoc -like species, including Weissella confuse formerly Lactobacillus confuses , W. Many studies supported that maintenance of health gut microflora provides protection against gastrointestinal disorder including gastrointestinal infections and inflammatory bowel diseases.
On the other hand, probiotics can be used as an alternative to the use of antibiotics in the treatment of enteric infection or to reduce the symptoms of antibiotic associated diarrhea [ 87 ]. Currently, much evidence exists on the positive effects of probiotics on human health [ 77 , 88 — 91 ]. Lactobacilli are the most extensively studied and widely used probiotics within the LAB. Most Lactobacillus strains belong to the L.
In order for a probiotic to be of benefit to human health, it must fulfil several criteria Figure 2. It must survive passage through the upper GIT and reach its site of action alive, and it must be able to function in the gut environment. The functional requirements of probiotics include tolerance to human gastric juice and bile, adherence to epithelial surfaces, persistence in the human GIT, immune stimulation, antagonistic activity toward intestinal pathogens such as Helicobacter pylori , Salmonella spp.
Pretreatments can promote growth of lactic flora that can be used depending on the fruit or vegetable to be fermented. Washing fruits and vegetables prior to fermentation reduces the initial microbial count, thus favouring the development of lactic flora [ 93 ]. Vegetables are also macerated with pectinolytic enzymes [ 75 ] to allow for their homogenization prior to lactic fermentation, mainly for the production of cocktails and juices [ 4 ]. Many vegetables contain glycosides that hamper efficient fermentation [ 94 ].
For LA fermentation of tomatoes, choosing very ripe fruit is recommended, since the high solanin content of unripe fruit might inhibit the growth of LAB.
LA fermentation of fruits and vegetables is mostly carried out in a salted medium [ 95 ]. Salting is done by adding common dry salt NaCl with high water content or by soaking in brine solution. The optimum salt concentration depends on the type of vegetables or fruits [ 96 ].
The main role of salt is to promote the growth of LAB over spoilage bacteria and to inhibit potential pectinolytic and proteolytic enzymes that can cause vegetable softening and further putrefaction.
Salt induces plasmolysis in the plant cells and the appearance of a liquid phase, which creates anaerobic conditions around the submerged product. Anaerobic conditions are more effective in the finely cut and shredded cut material. Some ingredients when added to LA fermented vegetables or fruits seem to enhance the development of lactic flora. They have three major roles: i they are a source of nutrients such as sugars, vitamins, and minerals which initiate fermentation; ii they add desirable aroma, flavour, and taste to the fermented product; iii they help in combating the spoilage bacteria by lowering the pH.
For some vegetables with low nutrient contents, such as turnip and cucumber, the addition of sugar promotes bacterial growth, thereby accelerating fermentation. In Spanish-style olive fermentation, olives have undergone alkaline treatment to eliminate their bitterness, followed by repeated washings.
They are then replaced with glucose on sucrose to improve LA fermentation [ 71 ]. Whey is often recommended for use in traditional LA vegetable fermentation processes as it has high lactose content, which is a potential energy substrate for LAB.
It also supplies minerals salts and vitamins necessary for the lactic flora metabolism. Spices or aromatic herbs are added to most of the lactic fruits and vegetable fermentation to improve the flavour of the end products [ 21 ].
Certain spices, mainly garlic, cloves, juniper berries, and red chillies help to inhibit the growth of spoilage bacteria [ 22 ]. Chemical preservatives such ascorbic on benzoic acid salts are sometimes used in industrial production of LA fermented sauerkraut , olives, or cucumbers [ 69 ]. The role of essential spice oils such as thyme, sage, lemon, and dill is to inhibit the growth during fermentations of olives [ 70 ].
Mustard seed contains allyl isothiocyanate, a volatile aromatic compound with antibacterial and antifungal properties, which inhibits the growth of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and promotes growth of LAB [ 69 , 70 ].
During the fermentation of fruits and vegetables with high fermentable sugar contents, the fermentation medium has to be buffered to slow down acidification, thus allowing the LAB to consume all the sugars. Nutritional quality of food can be enhanced by fermentation, which may improve the digestibility and beneficial components of fermented food.
The raw materials have increased the level of vitamin and mineral content compared to its initial content. Several antimicrobial compounds such as organic acids, hydrogen peroxide, diacetyls, and bacteriocins are produced during the fermentation process, which impacts unrequited bacterial growth and on the other hand increases the shelf life of the food.
Lactic acid content of fermented food product may enhance the utilization of calcium, phosphorus, and iron and also increase adsorption of iron and vitamin D. Fermented foods have a variety of enzymes and each enzyme can play a different role in increasing food quality.
Lactase in fermented food product degrades the lactose into galactose. Galactose is an important constituent of cerebroside that can promote brain development in infants. Similarly proteinases produced by LAB can break down the casein into small digestible molecules. Fermented foods are rich in globular fats which can be easily digested. Most of the fruits and vegetables contain toxins and antinutritional compounds.
These can be removed or detoxified by the action of microorganisms during fermentation process. Plant foods contain a series of compounds, collectively referred to as antinutrients, which generally interfere with the assimilation of some nutrients and in some cases may even confer toxic or undesirable physiological effects.
Numerous processing and cooking methods have been shown to possibly reduce the amount of these antinutrients and hence their adverse effects. It has been concluded that the way food is prepared and cooked is equally important as the identity of the food itself. Research is currently focused on identifying the antinutrient effect of several constituents rather than studying their fate during lactic acid fermentation. Several researchers have described the beneficial effects of LAB.
This can modify the intestinal microbiota positively and prevent the colonization of other enteric pathogens. LAB strains also improve the digestive functions, enhance the immune system, reduce the risk of colorectal cancer, control the serum cholesterol levels, and eliminate the unrequired antinutritional compounds present in food materials. The overall health benefits of LAB are elucidated in Figure 3.
Chemical additives have generally been used to combat-specific microorganisms. In the case of fermented foods, lactic acid bacteria LAB have been essential for these millennia. LAB play a defining role in the preservation and microbial safety of fermented foods, thus promoting the microbial stability of the final products of fermentation.
Protection of foods is due to the production of organic acids, carbon dioxide, ethanol, hydrogen peroxide, and diacetyl antifungal compounds such as fatty acids or phenyllactic acid, bacteriocins, and antibiotics such as reutericyclin [ 97 ]. Like LAB, also bacteriocins have been consumed for millennia by mankind as products of LAB and, for this reason, they may be considered as natural food ingredients. As reported by Cotter et al. In fact, LAB bacteriocins enjoy a food grade and this offers food scientists the possibility of allowing the development of desirable flora in fermented foods or preventing the development of specific unwanted spoilage and pathogenic bacteria in both fermented and nonfermented foods by using a broad- and narrow-host-range bacteriocins, respectively.
Regarding the application of bacteriocin-producing starter strains in food fermentation, the major problem is related to the in situ antimicrobial efficacy that can be negatively influenced by various factors, such as the binding of bacteriocins to food components fat or protein particles and food additives e.
The most recent food application of bacteriocins encompasses their binding to polymeric packaging, a technology referred to as active packaging.
Bacteriocins have generally a cationic character and easily interact with Gram-positive bacteria that have a high content of anionic lipids in the membrane determining the formation of pores [ 97 ].
In addition to traditional methods microscopy, plate count, etc. RFLPs and 16s rDNA were employed to isolate and characterize lactic acid bacteria from dochi fermented black beans and suan-tsai fermented mustard , a traditional fermented food in Taiwan [ ].
The isolated strains are L. The major representatives of LAB involved in these fermentations were L. Even though it has been broadly verified that dairy fermented products are the best matrices for delivering probiotics, there is growing evidence of the possibility of obtaining probiotic foods from nondairy matrices.
Several raw materials such as cereals, fruits, and vegetables have recently been investigated to determine their suitability for designing new, nondairy probiotic foods [ ].
Generally existing probiotics belong to the genus Lactobacillus. However, few strains are commercially obtainable for probiotic function Table 1. Gene technology and relative genomics will play a role in rapid searching and developing new strains, with gene sequencing allowing for an increased thoughtful of mechanisms and the functionality of probiotics [ 77 , ].
In Asian continent, fermented fruits and vegetables are associated with several social and cultural aspects of different races. Studies showed that fruits and vegetables may serve as a suitable carrier for probiotics. Fermented fruits and vegetables contain a diverse group of prebiotic compounds which attract and stimulate the growth of probiotics. Basic understanding about the relationship between food, beneficial microorganism, and health of the human being is important to improve the quality of food and also prevention of several diseases.
The amount of food ingredients and additives in fermented foods, such as sugar, salt, and monosodium glutamate, should conform to the accepted standards established by the regulations of target markets. Mixed fermentation with high variability should be replaced by pure cultivation to achieve large-scale production.
Although challenges remain, it is possible that fermented foods, handed down for many generations, will play a major role in the global food industry. Detailed studies on the microbial composition and characteristics of fermented fruits and vegetables lead to the further application.
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted articles related to COVID Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions. Academic Editor: Triantafyllos Roukas. Received 17 Feb Accepted 30 Apr Published 28 May Abstract As world population increases, lactic acid fermentation is expected to become an important role in preserving fresh vegetables, fruits, and other food items for feeding humanity in developing countries.
Introduction Fermented foods and beverages have heterogeneity of traditions and cultural preferences found in the different geographical areas, where they are produced. Fermentation of Fruits and Vegetables by LAB Shelf life of the perishable food can be improved by fermentation which is considered as the oldest technology compared to the refrigeration.
Table 1. Examples of traditional fermented fruits and vegetables, which are used in various parts of Asian subcontinent. Figure 1. Overall fermentation process of fruits and vegetables. Pobuzihi Taiwan Durian Carbohydrates Stokes Yan-taozih China and Taiwan. Table 2. Nutritive values and scientific names of fruits and vegetables mostly used for lactic acid fermentation.
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Dahal, T. About this book When I undertook the production of the First Edition of this book it was my first foray into the world of book editing, and I had no idea of what I was undertaking! Show all. The microbiology of vegetable fermentations Pages Harris, Linda J. The silage fermentation Pages Woolford, Michael K. Fermentative upgrading of wastes for animal feeding Pages Neelakantan, S. Cocoa, coffee and tea Pages Fowler, M. Thickeners of microbial origin Pages Harvey, L. Sourdough breads and related products Pages Hammes, W.
The microbiology of alcoholic beverages Pages Fleet, G. Cheeses Pages Stanley, G. Fermented milks Pages Oberman, H. Fermented fish and fish products Pages Beddows, C. Protein-rich foods based on fermented vegetables Pages Wood, B. Food flavours from yeast Pages Stam, H.