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Be the first. A Chlorosis on leaves B Change in leaf pigmentation to a dark shade of green C Short, stunted appearance of stems D Reddish pigmentation on the leaves or stem 4.
According to paragraph 2, a symptom of iron deficiency is the presence in young leaves of A deep red discoloration between the veins B white or yellow tissue between the veins C dead spots between the veins D characteristic dark green veins Much of the research on nutrient deficiencies is based on growing plants hydro- P A ponically, that is, in soilless liquid nutrient solutions. This technique allows researchers R A to create solutions that selectively omit certain nutrients and then observe the result- G R A ing effects on the plants.
Hydroponics has applications beyond basic research, since P H it facilitates the growing of greenhouse vegetables during winter. Aeroponics, a tech- 3 nique in which plants are suspended and the roots misted with a nutrient solution, is another method for growing plants without soil. According to paragraph 3, what is the advantage of hydroponics for research on nutrient deficiencies in plants? A It allows researchers to control what nutrients a plant receives. B It allows researchers to observe the growth of a large number of plants simultaneously.
C It is possible to directly observe the roots of plants. D It is unnecessary to keep misting plants with nutrient solutions. A P A survey of known hyperaccumulators identified that 75 percent of them amassed R A nickel; cobalt, copper, zinc, manganese, lead, and cadmium are other minerals of G R A choice.
They may be P H herbs, shrubs, or trees. Many members of the mustard family, spurge family, legume 5 family, and grass family are top hyperaccumulators. A To provide examples of plant types that cannot tolerate high levels of harmful minerals B To show why so many plants are hyperaccumulators C To help explain why hyperaccumulators can be found in so many different places D To emphasize that hyperaccumulators occur in a wide range of plant types 9. This scenario begins with the planting of hyperaccumulating species in the target area, such as an aban- P A doned mine or an irrigation pond contaminated by runoff.
Toxic minerals would first R A be absorbed by roots but later relocated to the stem and leaves. A harvest of the G R A shoots would remove the toxic compounds off site to be burned or composted to P H recover the metal for industrial uses. After several years of cultivation and harvest, 6 the site would be restored at a cost much lower than the price of excavation and reburial, the standard practice for remediation of contaminated soils. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in paragraph 6?
A Before considering phytoremediation, hyperaccumulating species of plants local to the target area must be identified. B The investigation begins with an evaluation of toxic sites in the target area to determine the extent of contamination. C The first step in phytoremediation is the planting of hyperaccumulating plants in the area to be cleaned up. D Mines and irrigation ponds can be kept from becoming contaminated by planting hyperaccumulating species in targeted areas.
It can be inferred from paragraph 6 that compared with standard practices for remediation of contaminated soils, phytoremediation A does not allow for the use of the removed minerals for industrial purposes B can be faster to implement C is equally friendly to the environment D is less suitable for soils that need to be used within a short period of time Many are found in tropi- 5 cal and subtropical areas of the world, where accumulation of high concentrations of metals may afford some protection against plant-eating insects and microbial pathogens.
Certain minerals are more likely to be accumulated in large quantities than others. A Scientists have known for some time that certain plants, called hyperaccumulators, can concentrate minerals at levels a hundredfold or greater than normal. B Scientists have known for some time that certain plants, called hyperaccumulators, can concentrate minerals at levels a hundredfold or greater than normal.
They may be herbs, shrubs, or trees. D Scientists have known for some time that certain plants, called hyperaccumulators, can concentrate minerals at levels a hundredfold or greater than normal. Plants need to absorb certain minerals from the soil in adequate quantities for normal growth and development. B When plants do not absorb sufficient amounts of essential minerals, characteristic abnormalities result. C Mineral deficiencies in many plants can be cured by misting their roots with a nutrient solution or by transferring the plants to a soilless nutrient solution.
D Though beneficial in lower levels, high levels of salts, other minerals, and heavy metals can be harmful to plants. E Because high concentrations of sodium chloride and other salts limit growth in most plants, much research has been done in an effort to develop salt-tolerant agricultural crops. F Some plants are able to accumulate extremely high levels of certain minerals and thus can be used to clean up soils contaminated with toxic levels of these minerals.
Micronesia, the area north of Melanesia, consists primarily of small scattered islands. Before the arrival of Europeans, the islands in the two largest cultural areas, Polynesia and Micronesia, together contained a population esti- mated at , Speculation on the origin of these Pacific islanders began as soon as outsiders encountered them; in the absence of solid linguistic, archaeological, and biological data, many fanciful and mutually exclusive theories were devised.
Many older theories implicitly deprecated the navigational abilities and overall cultural creativity of the Pacific islanders. For example, British anthropologists G. Elliot Smith and W. Perry assumed that only Egyptians would have been skilled enough to navigate and colonize the Pacific. In Norwegian adventurer Thor Heyerdahl drifted on a balsa-log raft westward with the winds and currents across the Pacific from South America to prove his theory that Pacific islanders were Native Americans also called American Indians.
In he crossed the Atlantic in an Egyptian-style reed boat to prove Egyptian influences in the Americas. Contrary to these theorists, the overwhelming evidence of physical anthropology, linguistics, and archaeology shows that the Pacific islanders came from Southeast Asia and were skilled enough as navigators to sail against the prevailing winds and currents.
The basic cultural requirements for the successful colonization of the Pacific islands include the appropriate boat-building, sailing, and navigation skills to get to the islands in the first place; domesticated plants and gardening skills suited to often marginal conditions; and a varied inventory of fishing implements and techniques.
It is now generally believed that these prerequisites originated with peoples speaking Austronesian languages a group of several hundred related languages and began to emerge in Southeast Asia by about b. The culture of that time, based on archaeology and linguistic reconstruction, is assumed to have had a broad inven- tory of cultivated plants including taro, yams, banana, sugarcane, breadfruit, coconut, sago, and rice.
Just as important, the culture also possessed the basic foundation for an effective maritime adaptation, including outrigger canoes and a variety of fishing techniques that could be effective for overseas voyaging. Detailed studies of the winds and currents using computer simulations suggest that drifting canoes would have been a most unlikely means of colonizing the Pacific.
These expeditions were likely driven by population growth and political dynamics on the home islands, as well as the challenge and excitement of exploring unknown waters. Because all Polynesians, Micronesians, and many Melanesians speak Austronesian languages and grow crops derived from Southeast Asia, all these peoples most certainly derived from that region and not the New World or elsewhere.
However, this is one plant out of a long list of Southeast Asian domesticates. As Patrick Kirch, an American anthropologist, points out, rather than being brought by rafting South Americans, sweet potatoes might just have easily been brought back by returning Polynesian navigators who could have reached the west coast of South America. The greater Pacific region, traditionally called Oceania, consists of three cultural areas: Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia.
A G Micronesia, the area north of Melanesia, consists primarily of small scattered islands. Before the arrival of Europeans, the islands in the two 1 largest cultural areas, Polynesia and Micronesia, together contained a population esti- mated at , B The islands of Micronesia are small and spread out.
D Melanesia is situated to the north of Micronesia. According to paragraph 2, which of the following led some early researchers to believe that the Pacific islanders originally came from Egypt? A Egyptians were known to have founded other great civilizations.
B Sailors from other parts of the world were believed to lack the skills needed to travel across the ocean. C Linguistic, archaeological, and biological data connected the islands to Egypt. D Egyptian accounts claimed responsibility for colonizing the Pacific as well as the Americas. Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 2 about early theories of where the first inhabitants of the Pacific islands came from? A They were generally based on solid evidence.
B They tried to account for the origin of the characteristic features of the languages spoken by Pacific islanders. C They assumed that the peoples living in Southeast Asia did not have the skills needed to sail to the Pacific islands. D They questioned the ideas of G.
It P A R is now generally believed that these prerequisites originated with peoples speaking A G Austronesian languages a group of several hundred related languages and began R A P to emerge in Southeast Asia by about b.
The culture of that time, based on H archaeology and linguistic reconstruction, is assumed to have had a broad inven- 3 tory of cultivated plants including taro, yams, banana, sugarcane, breadfruit, coconut, sago, and rice. All of the following are mentioned in paragraph 3 as required for successful colonization of the Pacific islands EXCEPT A knowledge of various Austronesian languages B a variety of fishing techniques C navigational skills D knowledge of plant cultivation In paragraph 3, why does the author provide information about the types of crops grown and boats used in Southeast Asia during the period around b.
These expeditions were likely driven by population growth and political dynamics on the home islands, as P A R well as the challenge and excitement of exploring unknown waters. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in paragraph 4? A Some people have argued that the Pacific was settled by traders who became lost while transporting domesticated plants and animals.
B The original Polynesian settlers were probably marooned on the islands, but they may have been joined later by carefully prepared colonization expeditions.
C Although it seems reasonable to believe that colonization expeditions would set out fully stocked, this is contradicted by much of the evidence.
D The settlement of the Pacific islands was probably intentional and well planned rather than accidental as some people have proposed. According to paragraph 4, which of the following is NOT an explanation for why a group of people might have wanted to colonize the Pacific islands?
A As their numbers increased, they needed additional territory. B The winds and currents made the islands easy to reach. C The political situation at home made emigration desirable. D They found exploration challenging and exciting. Later theories concentrated on journeys in the other direction. A Speculation on the origin of these Pacific islanders began as soon as outsiders encountered them; in the absence of solid linguistic, archaeological, and biological data, many fanciful and mutually exclusive theories were devised.
B Speculation on the origin of these Pacific islanders began as soon as outsiders encountered them; in the absence of solid linguistic, archaeological, and biological data, many fanciful and mutually exclusive theories were devised.
C Speculation on the origin of these Pacific islanders began as soon as outsiders encountered them; in the absence of solid linguistic, archaeological, and biological data, many fanciful and mutually exclusive theories were devised.
D Speculation on the origin of these Pacific islanders began as soon as outsiders encountered them; in the absence of solid linguistic, archaeological, and biological data, many fanciful and mutually exclusive theories were devised.
Together, Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia make up the region described as the Pacific islands, or Oceania. B Although early colonizers of the islands probably came from agriculture-based societies, they were obliged to adopt an economy based on fishing. C New evidence suggests that, rather than being isolated, Pacific islanders engaged in trade and social interaction with peoples living in Southeast Asia.
D Computer simulations of the winds and currents in the Pacific have shown that reaching the Pacific Islands was probably much easier than previously thought. E It is now believed that the process of colonization required a great deal of skill, determination, and planning and could not have happened by chance.
F Using linguistic and archaeological evidence, anthropologists have determined that the first Pacific islanders were Austronesian people from Southeast Asia. The last event marks the beginning of the Cambrian period. During a geologically brief million-year period, all modern animal groups along with other animals that are now extinct evolved. Why did it occur so late in the history of Earth?
The origin of multicellular forms of life seems a relatively simple step compared to the origin of life itself. Why does the fossil record not document the series of evolutionary changes during the evolution of animals? Why did animal life evolve so quickly? Paleontologists continue to search the fossil record for answers to these questions. One interpretation regarding the absence of fossils during this important million-year period is that early animals were soft bodied and simply did not fossilize.
Fossilization of soft-bodied animals is less likely than fossilization of hard- bodied animals, but it does occur. Conditions that promote fossilization of soft-bodied animals include very rapid covering by sediments that create an environment that discourages decomposition.
In fact, fossil beds containing soft-bodied animals have been known for many years. The Ediacara fossil formation, which contains the oldest known animal fossils, consists exclusively of soft-bodied forms. Although named after a site in Australia, the Ediacara formation is worldwide in distribution and dates to Precambrian times. This million-year-old formation gives few clues to the origins of modern animals, however, because paleontologists believe it represents an evolutionary experiment that failed.
It contains no ancestors of modern animal groups. A slightly younger fossil formation containing animal remains is the Tommotian formation, named after a locale in Russia. It dates to the very early Cambrian period, and it also contains only soft-bodied forms. At one time, the animals present in these fossil beds were assigned to various modern animal groups, but most paleontolo- gists now agree that all Tommotian fossils represent unique body forms that arose in the early Cambrian period and disappeared before the end of the period, leaving no descendants in modern animal groups.
A third fossil formation containing both soft-bodied and hard-bodied animals pro- vides evidence of the result of the Cambrian explosion. Shortly after the Cambrian explosion, mud slides rapidly buried thousands of marine animals under conditions that favored fossilization. These unassignable animals include a large swim- ming predator called Anomalocaris and a soft-bodied animal called Wiwaxia, which ate detritus or algae.
The Burgess Shale formation also has fossils of many extinct representatives of modern animal groups. For example, a well-known Burgess Shale animal called Sidneyia is a representative of a previously unknown group of arthro- pods a category of animals that includes insects, spiders, mites, and crabs. Fossil formations like the Burgess Shale show that evolution cannot always be thought of as a slow progression.
The Cambrian explosion involved rapid evolution- ary diversification, followed by the extinction of many unique animals. Why was this evolution so rapid? No one really knows. Many zoologists believe that it was because so many ecological niches were available with virtually no competition from existing species.
Will zoologists ever know the evolutionary sequences in the Cambrian explosion? Perhaps another ancient fossil bed of soft-bodied animals from million-year-old seas is awaiting discovery. The geologic timescale is marked by significant geologic and biological events, including the origin of Earth about 4. Why P does the fossil record not document the series of evolutionary changes during the A R evolution of animals?
Paleontologists continue A G R to search the fossil record for answers to these questions. Fossilization of soft-bodied animals is less likely than fossilization of hard- 3 bodied animals, but it does occur. According to paragraph 2, which of the following is NOT a question that paleontologists asked about the Cambrian explosion? B Why did it take so long for multicellular organisms to develop?
C Why did animal life evolve so rapidly? D Why does the fossil record lack evidence of animal evolution during that time? Which of the following best describes the relationship between paragraph 2 and paragraph 3?
A Paragraph 2 puts forward several scientific claims, one of which is rejected in paragraph 3. B Paragraph 2 poses several questions, and paragraph 3 offers a possible answer to one of them. C Paragraph 2 presents outdated traditional views, while paragraph 3 presents the current scientific conclusions.
D Paragraph 2 introduces a generalization that is illustrated by specific examples in paragraph 3. Although named after a site in Australia, A G the Ediacara formation is worldwide in distribution and dates to Precambrian times. R A P This million-year-old formation gives few clues to the origins of modern animals, H however, because paleontologists believe it represents an evolutionary experiment 4 that failed.
Which of the following is NOT mentioned in paragraph 4 as being true of the Ediacara formation? A It contains fossils that date back to the Precambrian period. B It contains only soft-bodied animal fossils. C It is located on a single site in Australia.
D It does not contain any fossils of the ancestors of modern animals. A slightly younger fossil formation containing animal remains is the Tommotian P A formation, named after a locale in Russia. It dates to the very early Cambrian period, R A and it also contains only soft-bodied forms. At one time, the animals present in these G R A fossil beds were assigned to various modern animal groups, but most paleontolo- P H gists now agree that all Tommotian fossils represent unique body forms that arose in 5 the early Cambrian period and disappeared before the end of the period, leaving no descendants in modern animal groups.
A The animals found in the Tommotian fossil bed were once thought to belong to a variety of modern animal groups, but now they are thought to have descended from a single group. B Animals in the Tommotian fossil beds were initially assigned to modern animal groups but are now thought to belong to groups that emerged and died out during the Cambrian period.
C Though at first they thought otherwise, paleontologists now agree that the animals in the Tommotian formation have body forms from which modern animals have descended. D It is unclear whether the Tommotian fossils from the early Cambrian period represent unique body forms or whether they should be assigned to various modern animal groups. Shortly after the Cambrian explosion, mud slides rapidly buried thousands P A of marine animals under conditions that favored fossilization.
These fossil beds pro- R A vide evidence of about 32 modern animal groups, plus about 20 other animal body G R A forms that are so different from any modern animals that they cannot be assigned P H to any one of the modern groups.
These unassignable animals include a large swim- 6 ming predator called Anomalocaris and a soft-bodied animal called Wiwaxia, which ate detritus or algae. A To contrast predators with animals that eat plants such as algae B To question the effects of rapid mud slides on fossilization C To suggest that much is still unknown about animals found in the Burgess Shale D To provide examples of fossils that cannot be assigned to a modern animal group The Cambrian explosion involved rapid evolution- P A R ary diversification, followed by the extinction of many unique animals.
Why was A G this evolution so rapid? Many zoologists believe that it was R A P because so many ecological niches were available with virtually no competition H from existing species. Will zoologists ever know the evolutionary sequences in the 7 Cambrian explosion? What can be inferred from paragraph 7 about why the Cambrian explosion is so unusual?
A It generated new ecological niches through the extinction of many unique animals. B It was a period of rapid evolution, and evolution is often thought of as a slow process.
C It is a period whose evolutionary sequences are clearly marked. D It generated a very large number of ancient fossil beds containing soft-bodied animals. It is relatively rare because the fossilization of soft-bodied animals requires a special environment.
A One interpretation regarding the absence of fossils during this important million-year period is that early animals were soft bodied and simply did not fossilize. Fossilization of soft-bodied animals is less likely than fossilization of hard-bodied animals, but it does occur. B Little is known about the stages of evolution during the Cambrian period, in part because early animals were soft bodied and could fossilize only under particular conditions.
C The Ediacara fossil formation provides the most information about the Cambrian explosion, while the earlier Tommotian and Burgess Shale formations give clues about Precambrian evolution. D While animal fossils from before the Cambrian explosion have no modern descendants, many animals that evolved during the Cambrian explosion can be assigned to modern groups.
E Zoologists are awaiting the discovery of a million-year-old fossil formation in order to be able to form a theory of how animal evolution progressed. F Although the reasons for the rapid evolution of animals during the Cambrian period are not known, one proposed explanation is an abundance of niches with a lack of competitors.
What do the speakers mainly discuss? Why does the woman mention her hometown? A To draw a contrast to her current situation B To acknowledge that she is accustomed to living in big cities C To indicate that she has known some people on campus for a long time D To emphasize her previous success in academic studies 3. What does the woman imply about the incident that occurred in her sociology class? A She was embarrassed because she gave an incorrect answer.
B She was upset because the professor seemed to ignore her. D She was surprised by the comments of the other students. What does the woman imply about joining the string quartet? A It would enable her to continue a hobby she gave up when she was ten. B It would allow her to spend more time in her major area of study. C It would help her stop worrying about her academic studies. D It would be a way to meet students with similar interests.
A To introduce a method that can help students remember new information B To introduce a way to study how information passes from one person to another C To explain the differences between biological information and cultural information D To explain the differences between stories, songs, and other pieces of information 7. Why does the professor tell the story about alligators?Others Ebooks Literature. Fan Page. Each form includes an Answer Key and complete audio scripts. Official toefl ibt tests volume 1 second edition free download accompanying DVD-ROM provides interactive computer-delivered versions of all five tests, plus separate audio tracks for all test listening sections for readers who are working with the print version. Link Vplume 2. Link VIP 3. Link VIP 4. The questions on the digital download are from actual TOEFL iBT ® tests. will meet your requirements or that its operation will be uninterrupted or error free. How to Use This Ebook Official TOEFL iBT ® Tests Volume 1, Second Edition can. This third edition reflects the all the latest changes and updates to the test. You also get a DVD containing all five interactive tests as well as a downloadable audio. Veja grátis o arquivo Official-TOEFL-iBT®-Tests-Volume-1 -Second-Edition (1) The questions on the digital download are from actual TOEFL iBT ® tests. Official TOEFL iBT® Tests Volume 1, 2nd Edition [Educational Testing Service] on a Kindle? Get your Kindle here, or download a FREE Kindle Reading App. Download Official TOEFL iBT Tests Volume 1, 3rd Edition. Resolve captcha to access download link! Similar books. Edition/Format: eBook: Document: English: Second editionView all editions and formats. Summary: Official TOEFL iBT (R) Tests Volume 1 contains five actual. Download. “ Every block of stone has a statue inside it and it is the task of the sculptor The Longman Preparation Course for the TOEFL® Test: iBT, Second Edition, TOEFL iBT Exam Vocabulary List Fireman tried to free the injured and put out the software is very similar to the test one, but it is NOT EXACTLY the same. Download for offline reading, highlight, bookmark or take notes while you read Official TOEFL iBT® Tests Volume 1 2nd Edition (ebook): Edition 2. ETS Official TOEFL IBT Tests Volume 1 Second Edition (Audio) This material for VIP Membership only, please Sign up or Login to unlimit any download. Y 96 posts 0 comments. Our study plans tell you exactly what to study every day. Sign in. You need to only give sufficient elements of painting and explain why they details to explain why visual details are are volmue. The TOEFL test is the most respected English-language proficiency exam accepted by colleges, universities, and agencies around the world. Account recovery. Inference Questions These questions ask about information that is implied but not explicitly stated in the passage. Visit www. Sign in Recover your password. File Name: official toefl ibt tests volume 1 pdf. Offshore tesst may also lose oil, creating oil slicks that drift ashore and foul the beaches, perhaps made by spears thrown at the drawings?