What are Operators available in SQL? These are used to specify conditions in an SQL statement. List out the ACID properties and explain? These guarantees that the database transactions are processed reliably. What are the different types of subquery? Answer: There are two types of subquery namely, Correlated and Non-Correlated. Correlated subquery: These are queries which select the data from a table referenced in the outer query. It is not considered as an independent query as it refers to another table and refers the column in a table.
Non-Correlated subquery: This query is an independent query where the output of subquery is substituted in the main query. Define the select into a statement. Select into statement is used to directly select data from one table and insert into other, the new table gets created with the same name and type as of the old table-.
What are the ACID properties? Atomicity — All the operations in the transaction are performed as a whole or not performed at all. Consistency — State of database changes only on successfully committed transaction. Isolation — Even with concurrent execution of the multiple transactions, the final state of the DB would be same as if transactions got executed sequentially. In other words, each transaction is isolated from one another. Durability — Even in the state of crash or power loss the state of the committed transaction remain persistent.
What are locks in SQL? Answer: Locks in SQL are used for maintaining database integrity in case of concurrent execution of the same piece of data. How many types of Privileges are available in SQL? Answer: There are two types of privileges used in SQL, such as. Object Privilege: This allows to perform actions on an object or object of another user s viz. If so, what are the commands? These commands include :. In addition to being a great tool for command-line aficionados, BCP is a powerful tool for those seeking to insert data into a SQL Server database from within a batch file or other programmatic method.
Typically linked servers are configured to enable the Database Engine to execute a Transact-SQL statement that includes tables in another instance of SQL Server, or another database product such as Oracle. In what version of SQL Server were synonyms released? Answer: How do synonyms work and explain its use cases? Ans: Encryption is the coding or scrambling of data so that humans can not read them directly.
Ans: The number of instances of each entity involved in an instance of a relation of a relationship describes how often an entity can participate in relationship.
Ans: Syntax Output : enter value forename:murali Employee doe snot exists. Ans: Using cursor for loop we are eliminating explicit cursor life cycle i. Note : In cursor for loop index variable internally behaves like a record type variable. Ans: We can also use out mode parameter I function, but these functions are not allowed to execute by using select statement. If we want to return more no.
Here also out parameter behaves like an uninitialized variable. Ans: SQL Loader is a utility program which is used to transfer data from flat into oracle database. SQL Loader always executes control file based on the type of flat file we are creating control file and then submit control file to SQL loader then only SQL loader transfer file into flat file into oracle Data Base during this file some other files also created.
Ans: In this method, a single variable can represent all different datatype into a single unit. This variable is also called a record type variable. Ans: Normalization is a scientific process which is called to decomposing a table into a number of tables.
This process automatically reduces duplicate data and also automatically avoids insertion, update, deletion problems. Ans: A column or a combination of columns which uniquely identify a record in a table is called a Super Key. Ans: A minimal super key uniquely identifying a record a table is called candidate key. A super key which is a subset of another super key then those super keys are not a candidate key.
Ans: This file extension is. Answer: The index can be defined as the way to retrieve the data more quickly. Q 42 How to select all records from the table? Answer: To select all the records from the table we need to use the following syntax:. Q 43 Define join and name different types of joins? Answer: Join keyword is used to fetch data from two or more related tables. It returns rows where there is at least one match in both the tables included in the join.
Read more here. Type of joins are:. Q 44 What is the syntax to add a record to a table? Q 45 How do you add a column to a table? The basic syntax is as follows:. Answer: A Primary key is a column whose values uniquely identify every row in a table. Primary key values can never be reused. What's the problem with this file? Promotional spam Copyrighted material Offensive language or threatening Something else. Result from employee emp, department as dept where emp.
What are the aggregate and scalar functions? Answer: Aggregate functions are used to evaluate mathematical calculation and return a single value. These calculations are done from the columns in a table. For example- max ,count are calculated with respect to numeric. Scalar functions return a single value based on the input value. What is a Stored Procedure?
Several SQL statements are consolidated into a stored procedure and execute them whenever and wherever required which saves time and avoid writing code again and again.
List some advantages and disadvantages of Stored Procedure? Answer: Advantages : A Stored Procedure can be used as modular programming which means create once, store and call for several times whenever it is required. This supports faster execution. It also reduces network traffic and provides better security to the data. Disadvantage: The only disadvantage of Stored Procedure is that it can be executed only in the database and utilizes more memory in the database server.
What do you mean by Collation? Answer: Collation is defined as a set of rules that determine how data can be sorted as well as compared. Character data is sorted using the rules that define the correct character sequence along with options for specifying case- sensitivity , character width, etc.
What are the different types of Collation Sensitivity? Answer: Following are the different types of collation sensitivity:. What are all different types of collation sensitivity? Different types of collation sensitivity are as follows Case Sensitivity: A and a and B and b. Kana Sensitivity: Japanese Kana characters. Width Sensitivity: Single byte character and double byte character. Accent Sensitivity. How to get unique records from a table? What is the command used to fetch the first 5 characters of a string?
Some of the ways to fetch the first 5 characters of a string are as follows:. To view the tables available on a particular DataBase. Define SQL Delete statement. How to select all the even number records from a table? To select all the even number records from a table:. How to select all the odd number records from a table? To select all the odd number records from a table:. Describe SQL comments? These three functions work in the same way. These functions are used to replace NULL value with another value.
Assume, some of the values in a column are NULL. If you run below statement, you will get result as NULL. What is Database Testing? It is AKA back-end testing or data testing. It involves in updating records in a database and verifying the same on the front end.
This post covers everything for both Developers as well as Testers. He has an extensive experience in the field of Software Testing.
He loves to be with his wife and cute little kid 'Freedom'. Support My Efforts. String Related Basic Queries for year exp. Date Time related Queries for year exp. Group By Related Queries for year exp. Join Related Queries for year exp. Tricky Join Queries for year exp. DDL Queries for year exp. Sql Server Datatype Interview Questions. Sql Server View Interview Questions. Sql Server Index Interview Questions. Stored Proc.
Sql Server Interview Questions. Sql Server Constraints Interview Questions. Quiz for fresher for year exp. Sql Server Quiz for Fresher. Right join return rows which are common between the tables and all rows of Right hand side table.
Simply, it returns all the rows from the right hand side table even though there are no matches in the left hand side table. Left Join. Left join return rows which are common between the tables and all rows of Left hand side table.
Simply, it returns all the rows from Left hand side table even though there are no matches in the Right hand side table. Full Join. Full join return rows when there are matching rows in any one of the tables. This means, it returns all the rows from the left hand side table and all the rows from the right hand side table. What is normalization? Normalization is the process of minimizing redundancy and dependency by organizing fields and table of a database. The main aim of Normalization is to add, delete or modify field that can be made in a single table.
What is Denormalization. DeNormalization is a technique used to access the data from higher to lower normal forms of database. It is also process of introducing redundancy into a table by incorporating data from the related tables. What are all the different normalizations? The normal forms can be divided into 5 forms, and they are explained below -. First Normal Form 1NF :. This should remove all the duplicate columns from the table.
Creation of tables for the related data and identification of unique columns. Second Normal Form 2NF :. Meeting all requirements of the first normal form. Placing the subsets of data in separate tables and Creation of relationships between the tables using primary keys. Third Normal Form 3NF :. This should meet all requirements of 2NF. Removing the columns which are not dependent on primary key constraints.
Fourth Normal Form 4NF :.Software Testing Material. You got the interview! Answering these questions is very easy if you follow the link. It contains sample answers xnd both freshers and experienced. What is a Database? A database is a collection of information in an organized form for faster and better access, storage and manipulation. It sql interview questions and answers for experienced pdf free download also be defined as a collection of tables, schema, views, and other database objects. What is Data sql interview questions and answers for experienced pdf free download Data warehouse refers to a central repository of data from multiple sources of information. Those data are consolidated, transformed and made available for the sql interview questions and answers for experienced pdf free download as well as online pdg. What is a Table in a Database? A table is a database object used to store records in a field in the form of columns and rows that holds data. What is a Field in a Database? What is a Record in a Database? A record also called a row of data is an ordered set of related data in a table. What is a column in a Table? A column is a vertical entity in a table that contains all information associated with a specific field in a table. What josh groban you raise me up download mp3 free DBMS? Database Management System is a collection of programs that enables a user to store, retrieve, update and delete information from a database. What are the types of DBMS? There are two types of DBMS 1. Non-Relational Database Management System. DKNF: Domain-Key Normal Form. A model free from all modification anomalies. Remember, these normalization guidelines are cumulative. For a database to be. SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers For All Database Developers and Feel free to use. Tutorial. A Free SSIS eBook from SQL. TRICKY SQL SERVER QUERIES INTERVIEW QUESTIONS ANSWERS 4 FRESHER AND EXPERIENCED WITH EXAMPLES PDF. Hey there. Advanced SQL Interview Questions And Answers Pdf. 1. What is Failover clustering overview? Answer: Failover clustering is mainly used for data availability. Explain SQL Data Types? Answer: In SQL Server, each column in a database table has a name and a data type. We need to decide what type of data to. If you're looking for SQL Interview Questions and Answers for Experienced or and the users are free to get the best possible outcome with minimum efforts. Basic & Advanced SQL Interview Questions And Answers: This post contains Top SQL Interview Questions for Experienced as well as Freshers. to delete all the rows from the table and free the space containing the table. RDBMS stands for Relational Database Management System. RDBMS store the data into the collection of tables, which is related by common. SQL Query Interview Questions pdf with example, SQL Interview, for fresher and experience, SQL Queries Interview Questions pdf for free download and SQL. Ans: There are three important types of Indexes and they are. Simply, it returns all the rows from Left hand side table even though there are no matches in the Right hand side table. Copyright by Interview Questions Answers. What is Hadoop framework? It returns rows where there is at least one match in both the tables included in the join. All the repeated values or the ones which are duplicate get deleted automatically. There can be many unique constraint defined per table, but only one Primary key constraint defined per table. Ans: DML Commands are used to manipulate data within a table. In simple words, we can say that a transaction means a group of SQL queries executed on database records. Apart from some major concepts, there are some hidden facts that remain unseen and affect your performance in the interview. What is its use?