Please create a new list with a new name; move some items to a new or existing list; or delete some items. Thermodynamics, kinetic theory and statistical dynamics. Thermodynamics, kinetic theory, and statistical thermodynamics. Termodinamica, teoria cinetica y termodinamica estadistica. The number o f microstates belonging to each macrostate is calculated in the conventional manner for Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac and Ma. Boltzmann statistics. The entropy is shown to be proportional to the natural logari thm of the total number of microstates available to the system and not to t he number of microstates in the most probable macrostate.

The logarithm of this change is proportional to the change of entropy of the system. Only the single-particle partition function is introduced and it is used to derive the thermodynamic properties of systems. The coverage is much the same as the earlier text except that it is based entirely on discrete levels.

The number of problems at the end of each chapter has been expanded. Some of the problems would become tedious if one did not have access to a small calculator. The International System SI bas been adopted thro ughout. The section on classical thermodynamics can be used for a course lasting one quarter. Lerner and C. Hooper, who also gave part of the manuscript a field test.

One of us GLS wishes to thank his colleagues at Rensselae r for many helpful discussions. Aitken worked all the problems and checked the answers. Phyllis Kallenburg patiently retyped many parts of the manuscript with great accuracy and good humor. The encouragement of our wives and tolerance of our children helped considerably in this undertaking. Criticisms from teachers and students will be welcomed.

Norwich, Vermont G. Processes 2 3 3 4 s 7 IS 16 17 Equations of state 2- 2 2- 3 2- 4 2- 7 2- 10 3 Scope of thermodynamics Thermodynamic systems State of a system. Properties Pressure Equations of state Equation of state of an ideal gas P-v-T surface for an ideal gas Equations of state of real gases P-u-T surfaces for real substances Equations of state of other than P-u-T systems Part ia l derivatives.

Expansivity and compressibility. Critical constants of a van der Waals gas Relations between partial derivatives Exact differentials 24 24 26 28 30 40 42 49 51 53 The f irst law of the r mody namics 3- 2 3- 8 3- 10 3- 11 3- 13 3- 14 In troduction Work in a volume change. W rk depends on the path Configu ration work and dissipative work The first law of thermodynamics I nternal energy Heat flow Heat flow depends on the path The mechanical equivalent of heat Heat capacity Heats of transformation.

Enthalpy General form of the first law. Calculations of entropy changes in reversible processes Temperature.. CarathCodory principle. Combined fir. Entropy and the second law of thermodynamics S- 1 6 The energy equation T and v independent T and P independent P and v independent. The Carnot cycle. The heat engine and the refrigerator The Helmholtz function and the Gibbs function Thermodynamic potentials. The Maxwell relations. Mean free path Coefficient or viscosity Thermal conductivity.

The principle or equipartition or energy. Classical theory of specific heat capacity Specific heat capacity or a solid Intermolecular forces. Vapor pressure or a liquid drop The reversible voltaic cell. Blackbody radiation. The distribution or molecular velocities. Molecular beams Ideal gas in a gravitational field. The principles of thermodynamics also tell us which few of these relations must be determined experimentally in order to completely specify all the properties of the system.

The actual magnitudes of quantities like those above can be calculated only on the basis of a molecular model. The kinetic theory of matter applies the Jaws of mechanics to the individual molecules of a system and enables one to calculate, for example, the numerical value of the specific heat capacity of a gas and to understand the properties of gases in terms of the law of force between individual molecules.

The approach of statistical thermodynamics ignores the detailed consideration of molecules as individuals and applies statistical considerations to find the distribution of the very large number of molecules that ll ake up a macroscopic piece of matter over the energy states of the system.

For those systems whose energy states can be calculated by the methods of either quantum or classical physics, both the magnitudes of the quantities mentioned above. The methods of statistics also give further insight into the concepts of entropy and the principle of the inc rease of entropy. Thermodynamics is complementary to kinetic theory and statistical thermodynamics. Thermodynamics provides relationships between physical properties of any system once certain measurements are made.

Kinetic theory and statistical thermodynamics enable one to calculate the magnitudes of these properties for those systems whose energy states can be determined. The science of thermodynamics had its start in the early part of the nineteenth century, primarily as a result of attempts to improve the efficiencies of steam engines, devices into which there is an input in the form of heat, and whose output is mechanical work.

Thus as the name implies, thermodynamics was concerned with both thermal and mechanical, or dynamical, concepts. As the subject developed and its basic laws were more fully understood, its scope became broader. The principles of thermodynamics are now used by engineers in the design of internal combustion engines, conventional and nuclear power stations, refrigeration and air-conditioning systems, and propulsion systems for rockets, missiles, aircraft, ships, and land vehifles.

The sciences of physical chemistry and chemical physics consist in large part of the applications of thermodynamics to chemistry and chemical equilibria. Communications, information theory, and even certain biological processes are examples of the broad areas in which the thermodynamic mode of reasoning is applicable.

In this book we shall first develop the principles of thermodynamics and show how they apply to a system of any nature. The methods of kinetic theory and statistics are then discussed and correlate t. S8 -2S9. S8 Specified formulas are used for calculating International Practical Temperature from measured values of the thermometer resistance over temperature ranges in this inte rval, the constants in these formula s being determined by measuring the resistance at specified fixed points between the triple point of hydrogen and the freezing point of zinc.

In the range from The thermocouple is calibrated by measuring its emf at a temperature pf At lemperatures above the freezing point of gold, The freezing point of gold, For a complete description of the procedures to be followed in determining IPTS temperatu res, see the article in M etrologia, Vol.

S, No. The IPTS is not defined below a temperature of A description of experimental procedures in this ra nge can be found in "Heat and Thermodynamics," 5th ed. Zemansky McGraw-Hill. If initially there are temperature differences between parts of the system, after a sufficiently long time the temperature will become the same at all points and then the system is in thermal equilibrium.

If there are variations in pressure or elastic stress within the system, parts of the system may move, or expand or contract. Eventually t hese motions, expansions, or contractions will cease, and when this has happened we say that the system is in mechanical equilibri um.

This does not necessarily mean that the pressure is the same at all points. Consider a vertical column of fluid in the earth's gravita tional field. The pressure in the flu id decreases wi th increasing elevation, but each element of the fluid is in mechanical equilibrium under the influence of its own weight and an equal upward force arising from the pressure difference between its upper and lower surfaces.

Finally, suppose that a system contains substances that can react chemically. After a sufficiently long time has elapsed, all possible chemical reactions will have taken place, and the system is then said to be in chemical equilibrium. Planck, German physicist Unless otherwise specified, the "state" of a system implies an equilibrium state. In this discussion it is assumed that the system is not divided into portions such that the pressure, for example, might be different in different portions, even though the pressure in each portion would approach a constant value.

If a process is carried out in such a way that at every instant the system departs only infinitesimally from an equilibrium state, the p rocess is called quasistatic i. Thus a quasistatic process closely approximates a succession of equilibrium stales. If there are finite departures from equilibrium, the process is nonquasistatic. Consider a gas in a cylinder provided with a movable piston.

Let the cylinder walls and the piston be adiabatic boundaries and neglect any effect of the earth's gravitational field. With the piston at rest, the gas eventually comes to an equilibrium state in which its temperature, pressure, and density are the same at all points. If the piston is then suddenly pushed down, the pressure, temperature, and density immediately below the piston will be increased by a finite amount above their equilibrium values, and the process is not quasistatic. To compress the gas quasistatically, the piston must be pushed down very slowly in order that the processes of wave propagation, viscous damping, and thermal conduction may bring about at all instants a state which is essentially one of both mechanical and thermal equilibrium.

Suppose we wish to increase the temperature of a system from an initial value T1 to a final value T,. The temperature could be increased by enclosing the system in a diathermal boundary and maintaining the surroundings of the system at the temperature T,. The process would not be quasistatic, however, because the temperature of the system near its boundary would increase more rapidly than that at internal points, and the system would not pass through a succession of states of thermal equilibrium.

All actual processes are nonquasistatic because they take place with finite differences of pressure, temperature, etc. Nevertheless, the concept of a quasistatic process is a useful and important one in thermodynamics. A process in which the volume of a system is constant is called isoDOiumic or isochoric. A process at constant temperature is called Iso- thermal.

A process carried out by a system enclosed by an adiabatic boundary is an adiabatic process. As stated earlier, such a process can also be described as one in which there is no ftow of heat across the boundary.

Many actual processes, such as a single stroke of the piston of an internal combustion engine, are very nearly adiabatic simply because the process takes place in such a short time that the Oow of beat into or out of the system is extremely small. A process can also be made adiabatic by adjusting the temperature of the surroundings as the process proceeds so that this temperature is always equal to that of the system. A reversible process can be defined as one whose "direction" can be reversed by an infinitesimal change in some property of the system.

Thus if the temperature of a system within a diathermal boundary is always slightly lower than that of its surroundings, there will be a ftow of heat from the surroundings into the system; whereas if the temperature of the system is slightly greater than that of the surroundings, there will be a flow of heat in the opposite direction.

Such a process is therefore reversible as well as quaslstatlc. The slow compreuion or expansion of a gas in a cylinder provided with a piston is quasistatic, but if there is a force of sliding friction, f, between piston and cylinder when the piston is in motion, the process is not reversible.

Therefore the direction of motion of the piston can be reversed only by a finite change in gas pressure. All reversible processes are necessarily quasistatic, but a quasistatic process is not necessarily reversible. The terms reversible and irreversible have a deeper significance also, which can only be brought out after a discussion of the second Jaw of thermodynamics. BrieHy justify your answers. The mean molecular weight of air is 29; that is, the mass of I kilomole of air is 29 kg.

Container A is surrounded by an adiabatic boundary, but the temperature of container 8 can be varied by bringing it into contact with a body Cat a different temperature. In Fig. Which figure represents a an open system enclosed by an adiabatic boundary; b an open system enclosed by a diathermal boundary; c a closed system enclosed by a diathermal boundary; d a closed system enclosed by an adiabatic boundary.

The density of water, shown in Fig. Suppose that when the thermoscope is inserted into each system, the water rises to the same height, corresponding to a densily of0. Consider the length of the mercury column as the thermometric property X and Jet 0 be the empirical temperature determined by this thermometer. The pressure Pis 0. Does it have any advantage or disadvantages compared with the IPTS scale? Using the data of the preceding problem, what is the temperature difference between the boiling point and the triple point of nitrogen on a the Kelvin, b the Celsius, c the Rankine, and d the Fahrenheit scales?

Include the proper un it in each answer. Be careful to specify the system in each ease. The pressure remains constant. The temperature remains constant. There is a force of friction between the cylinder wall and the piston. Assume tha t the system is the metal which neither contracts nor expa nds. J-8 a. The relation between the pressure and volume of the gas, at a constant temperature T, is shown in Fig.

There is a foroe of sliding friction f between the piston and the cylinder. The values of the remaining properties are then determined by the nature of the substance. For example, suppose that oxygen gas is allowed to flow into an evacuated tank, the tank and its contents being kept at a thermodynamic temperature T. Tbe volume V of the gas admitted is then fixed by the volume of the tank and the mass m of gas is fixed by the amount which we allow to enter.

Once T, V, and m have been fixed, the pressure P is determined by the nature of oxygen and cannot be given any arbitrary value. If any three of the properties arc fixed, the fourth is determined. Examples are the area and surface tension of a liquidvapor surface, the magnetization and flux density in a magnetic material, and the state of charge of an electrolytic cell. The equation of state can be written in a form which depends only on the nature of a substance, and not on how much of the substance is present, if a ll extensive properties are replaced by their corresponding specific values, per unit mass or per mole.

In general, it is an extremely complicated relation and is often expressed as a converging power series. A general idea of the nature of th. Instead of the actual volume V, we shall usc the molal specific volume, 11 - Vfn. Let us take all the data collected at a given temperature T, calculate for each individual measurement the ra tio PvfT, and plot these ratios as o rdinates against the pressure P as abscissa.

It is found experimentally that these ratios all lie on a smooth curve, whatever the temperature, but that the ratios at different temperatures lie on different curves. A portion of this surface for an ideal gas is shown in F ig. Pdfdrive:hope Give books away.

Get books you want. Ask yourself: What would I do differently if I knew nobody would judge me? Combined First and Second Laws. Thermodynamic Potentials. Applications of Thermodynamics to Simple Systems. Kinetic Theory. Intermolecular Forces: Transport Phenomena. Statistical Thermodynamics.

Applications of Statistics to Gases. Phyll is Kallenburg patiently retyped many parts of the manuscript with great accuracy. The encou ragem ent of our wives and tolerance of. Criticisms from teachers and students will. Norwich, Vermont. Troy, New York October 1 9 7 4.

Fu ndamental co ncept s. Scope of thermodynamics. Thermodynamic systems. State of a system. Pressu re. Thermal equilibrium and temperature. The Zeroth law. Empirical and thermodynamic temperature. The International Practical Temperature Scale. Thermodynamic equilibrium. Equations of state. Equation of state of an ideal. P-v-T surface. Equations of state of real. P-u-T s urfaces fo r re al substances.

Equations of st ate of othe r than P-u-T systems. Part ia l derivatives. Expansivity and compressibility. Critical constants of a van der Waals gas. Relations between partial derivatives.

Exact differentia ls. The f irst. In troduction. W rk depends o n the path. Configu ration work and dissipative work. T he first law of thermodynamics. I nternal energy. Heat flow. Heat flow depends on the path. The mechanical equivalent of heat. H eat capaci ty. Heats of transformation. Genera l form o f the first law. Energy equation of steady flow. Some consequences of the first law.

The energy equation. The Carnot cycle. Entropy and the second law of thermodynamics. The second law of thermodynamics Thermodynamic temperature. Calcula tions of entropy changes in reversible processes. Entropy changes in irreversible processes. Combined fir. T and o independent. T and P independent. P and v independent. T he T ds equations. Properties of a pure substance.

Properties of an ideal gas. Properties of a liquid or solid under hydrostatic pressure. The Joule and Joule-Thomson experiments. Multivariable systems. CarathCodory principle. Thermodynamic potentials. The Helmholtz function and the Gibbs function. The Maxwell relations.

Stable and unstable equilibrium. Phase transitions. The third law of thermodynamics. Applications of thermodynamics t o simple systems. Phase equtlibrium and the phase rule. Dependence or vapor pressure on total pressure. Vapor pressure or a liqu id drop. Surface ten sion. The reversible voltaic cell Blackbody radi a tion. ThermodJnamics or magnetism. Kinetic theory. Basic assump tions Molecular flu K.

Equation or state or a n ideal gas. Collisions wi th a moving wall. The principle or equiparti tion or energy. Classical theory of specific heat capacity. Specific heat capacity or a solid. Intermolecular forces.

Transport phenomena. I nte r molecular forces. The van der Waals equation of s tate. Collision cross seclion. Mean free path. Coefficient or viscosity.

Thermal conductivity. Statistica l th ermodynamics. Introd uctio n. Energy state s a nd energy le vels. Macrostatn a nd. Thermodynamic probabili ty.

Fermi -Dirac sta t istics. The Maxwell-Boltzman n statistics. The statistical interpretation or entropy. The Bose-Einstein distribution function. Fermi-Di rac dis tri buti o n fu nctio n. Th e c lassica l distribution function.

Comparison o r distribu tion functions for ind ist in gu ishable particles. Th e Maxwell-Boltzman n di stribu tion function. The pa rtition function. Thermodynamic properties. Applications of statistics t o. The monatomic ideal gas. The distribu tion or molecular velocities. Molecular beams. The principle or equipattition or energy. The quantozed linear oscillator. Specific beat capacity or a diatomic gas.

Applications of quantum statistics to other systems. Th e Einstein. The Debye theory o r the specific heat capacity or a solid.

Negative temperatures. The electron gas. A Selected differentials from e condensed collection of thermodynamic f ormulas by P. B The Lagrange method of undetermined multipliers.

C Properties of factorials. D An alternative derivation of distribution f unct ions. E Magnetic potential energy. Answers to problems. Fundamental concepts. Thermodynam ics is an experimental science based on a small number of principles that are generalizations made from experience. From the principles of thermo- dynamics one can derive general relations between such quantities as coefficients.

The principles of thermodynamics also tell us which few of these rela- tions must be determined experimentally in order to completely specify all the. The actual magnitudes of quantities like those above can be calculated only on the basis of a molecular model. The kinetic theory of matter applies the Jaws of mechanics to the individual molecules of a system and enables one to calculate, for example, the numerical value of the specific heat capacity of a gas and to understand the properties of gases in terms of the law of force between individua l molecules.

The approach of statistical thermodynamics ignores t he detailed consideration of molecules as individuals and applies statistical considerations to find the distri- bution of the very large number of molecules that ll ake up a macroscopic p iece of matter over the energy states of the system.

For those systems whose energy states can be calculated by the methods of either quantum or classical physics, both the magnitudes of the quantities mentioned above. The methods of statistics also give further insight into the concepts of entropy and the principle of the inc rease of entropy. Thermodynamics is complementary to kinetic theory and statistical thermo- dynamics. Thermodynamics provides relationships between physical properties of any system once certain measurements a re made.

Kinetic theory and statistical thermodynamics enable one to calculate the magnitudes of these properties for those systems whose energy states can be determined. The science of thermodynamics had its start in the early part of the nineteenth century, primarily as a resu lt of attempts to improve the efficiencies of steam engines, devices into which there is an input in the form of heat, a nd whose output is mechanical work. Thus as the name implies, thermodynamics was concerned with.

As the subject developed. The principles of thermodynamics are now used by engineers in the design of internal combustion engines, conventional and nuclear power stations, refrigeration and air-conditioning systems, and propulsion systems for rockets, missiles, aircraft, ships, and la nd vehifles. The sciences of physical chemistry and chemical physics consist in large part of the applications of thermodynamics to chemistry and chemical equilibria.

The production of ex tremely low temperatures, in the neigh- borhood of absolute zero, involves the application of thermodynamic principles 0.

Communications, information theory, and even certain biological processes are examples of the broad areas in. I n this book we shall first develop the principles o f ther modyn amics a nd show how t hey apply to a syste m of any nature.

Thank you for interesting in thermodynamics kinetic theory and statistical thermodynamics pdf free download services. We are a non-profit group that run this website to share documents. We need your help to maintenance this website. Please help us to share our service with your friends. Share Embed Donate. All righu rosavtd. Printed in the United States of America. Published simultaneously in Canada. Ubrary of Congress Catalog Card No. The general approach has been unaltered and the level remains much the same, thermodynamics kinetic theory and statistical thermodynamics pdf free download being increased somewhat by greater coverage. The text is still considered useful for advanced undergraduatCJ in physics and engineering who have some famil iarity with calculus. The- download free fire battlegrounds mod apk android versi terbaru, typewriter software free download for windows 10 Thermodynamics, Kinetic Theory, and Statistical Thermodynamics, 3rd EditionUniversitas Negeri Malang