If legal advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional person should be sought. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN ———3 pbk. Negotiation in business. International business enterprises—Management. Title: Negotiate anything with anyone anywhere around the world. A27 Acuff All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This publication may not be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in whole or in part, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of AMACOM, a division of American Management Association, Broadway, New York, NY If you will be interacting with people from different cultures in either busi- ness or travel, this book is for you.
If you find that you are uncomfortable in dealing with people from different cultures and want to understand why, this book is for you. Or, if you are an experienced negotiator who is getting less- than-excellent results from your international negotiations, this book is for you.
This book is for anyone who works or travels abroad, and for those who must deal with people in their own country who have recently come from other coun- tries. It is for managers, sales representatives, marketers, traders, diplomats, military personnel, attorneys, entrepreneurs, and other professionals whose suc- cess will depend on their ability to influence others. Objectives This book has four main objectives: 1. To help you to avoid the typical mistakes and pitfalls of international negotiating ix To enable you to build on your current negotiating strengths 3.
To help you to understand the process of international negotiations 4. To lead you to strengthen your cultural awareness and skills This book will help protect you from making an agreement you should re- ject, and it will help you make the most of your assets.
This book will help you not only to show up, but also to dance every dance. Overall Approach We will briefly review negotiations in any language, an overview of the negotia- tions process as a whole, regardless of culture.
Global negotiations will then be examined: what to look for in other cultures; how these cultural factors affect negotiations; challenges faced by global negotiators; how to deal with your boss; and how to be prepared for the phases of international adjustment.
This book is divided into three parts. Part One explores key aspects of the negotiating process. Part Two addresses the unique aspects of global negotia- tions and explores practical strategies to help you on your global journey. Part Two also examines the most difficult negotiating problems that you are likely to experience internationally and offers solutions that you can use on the job.
Part Three takes you on an intercultural journey to sixty-three countries. For each of these regions, you will learn such critical factors as pace of the negotia- tion, negotiating style, emphasis on personal relationships, decision making, and contractual and administrative issues.
This undertaking could not have happened, however, without the help of many people. It is impossible to acknowledge appropriately all the many indi- viduals whose experiences, insights, and support influenced the development and writing of this book. But there are specific people to whom I especially owe a great deal of thanks. Although these individuals share in the quality of the book, any errors or limitations are mine alone.
Crean of MasterCard International, Inc. Navy Defense Institute xi Their many perceptive questions and comments always moved the book toward relevance and clarity. The research and writing of others was helpful in preparation of the country-by- country Negotiating Primers and other aspects of the book. The following re- sources were particularly helpful: Nancy J.
Wright, ed. This basis is important to the ensuing discussion of the international aspects of negotiations and to the negotiations process as a whole.
It is timely because almost everything about our society in general, and our workplace in particular, is increasingly complicated.
Today there is more litigation, more cultural diver- sity, more regulation, more technology, and—in line with the focus of this book—more globalization among businesses. The subject is timeless because life is a series of endless negotiations. Moses, for example, was more than an Old Testament prophet.
He was an ace negotiator. He had been up on the mountain for forty days negotiating the Ten Commandments with the Supreme Other Side. It is These fundamen- tals include understanding the concept of negotiation, appreciating the impor- tance of the win-win approach, understanding the stages of negotiation, being able to plan your negotiation, and knowing what it takes to close a deal.
In many ways, the negotiating skills we seek to master are those you prac- ticed as a child but forgot as you became older and more sophisticated. Anyone with a six-year-old is reminded of this on a daily basis. They know that when we say no, we often mean maybe. Negotiating Defined Negotiating is the process of communicating back and forth for the purpose of reaching a joint agreement about differing needs or ideas.
Negotiating has to do with persuasion rather than the use of crude power. As such, negotiating is a collection of behaviors that involves communications, sales, marketing, psychology, sociology, assertiveness, and conflict resolution. Above all, it has to do with the clear understanding of our own motivations and those of the other side as we try to persuade them to do what we want them to do. A negotiator may be a buyer or seller, a customer or supplier, a boss or employee, a business partner, a diplomat, or a civil servant.
On a more personal level, a negotiator may be your spouse, friend, parent, or child. In all these cases, your negotiating skill strongly influences your ability to get ahead in both your organizational life and in your other interpersonal relationships. Some negotiations involve business counterparts outside your organization, while others involve those within your organization, such as the boss, top man- agement, attorneys, accountants, and other technocrats.
With both internal and external situations, the main objective of a negotiation is to help you get what you want. TOS can be a negotiating counterpart in a foreign country or host country where the negotiation is taking place or a negotiator visiting your country to do business with you.
What Can You Negotiate About? Although the details of business negotiations can be quite complex, there are really only nine subjects about which you can negotiate.
Everything else is a variation on these themes: 1. Price 2. Terms e. Delivery 4. Quality 5. Service 6. Training 7. Resources people, money, materials 8. Scope 9. Process who is going to do what to whom Many negotiations are centered on price.
Negotiations that in- volve the other eight items relate to the return on investment, or the value added. The Importance of Win-Win, or Interest-Based, Negotiations Almost any book about negotiating written in the past couple of decades in- cludes great tributes to the virtues of win-win, or interest-based, negotiations. After having conducted seminars on negotiating with thousands of participants around the world, I can tell you that virtually every individual is quick to agree publicly with the idea of win-win negotiations.
Intellectually, we know that the cool, even-handed, interest- based approach is appropriate, but this is sometimes difficult to remember when the heat is on.
The problem with win-lose negotiations is this. The loser usually behaves quite predictably and tries to get even. It may not be today. It may not be tomorrow, but I will get you. You will bleed and not even know it. Sometimes the result is even lose-lose.
You can see much evidence of win-lose problems on the geopolitical level. The conflicts that have been sustained for decades, or sometimes even centuries, are really unresolved conflicts from previous win-lose situations. The Middle East antagonisms are a good example—a series of situations where the various parties have sought to win, only at the expense of TOS.
Interest-based negotiation is critical, not for you to be a wonderful, kind human being, but because it is the practical thing to do. It will help you get more of what you want. And how is this achieved? In two key ways: 1. Meet the needs of TOS. The idea here is that in helping others, we can often help ourselves. Focus on interests and not positions. It is sometimes difficult to establish an interest-based framework, even in a do- mestic business negotiation, and even when one has honorable intentions.
Your counterpart may doubt your sincerity, or the condition under which you are negotiating may not lend itself to a feeling of collaboration and mutual trust. Achieving an interest-based outcome can be especially difficult, however, in global business negotiations. The different cultural backgrounds of negotiators may cause them to bring different expectations to the bargaining sessions, cre- ate stereotypes of TOS, and develop a climate of suspicion or distrust.
Thousands of such examples abound in international business negotiations. Achieving interest-based negotiations, and tuning in to WIIFT, takes an enor- mous amount of empathy, understanding, listening, patience—and skill. A California-based distributor of computer software relates the frustration she felt during her first trip to the Pacific Rim. I knew that business takes longer in Japan than in the United States, but I had no idea it would take several days to really get down to business in Tokyo.
The tone of the negotiation was very bad, because I really felt they were dragging their feet. I finally convinced them that we had the same objectives. I had scheduled five days there, but I needed only a morning. The Singaporean buyers wanted to talk business as much as I did. After a nice lunch with them, I headed for the airport, mission accomplished. They were looking for the U. The Stages of Negotiation In both domestic and international negotiations, there are six stages through which negotiations proceed: 1 orientation and fact-finding; 2 resistance; 3 reformulation of strategies; 4 hard bargaining and decision making; 5 agree- ment; and 6 follow-up.
Knowledge of these stages helps you understand the overall shape of the negotiating process and gives you a bearing as you proceed through each negotiation.
Here is a summary of the six stages: 1. Orientation and Fact-Finding. This first stage is critical for what is to come in the negotiations. Unfortunately, many U. Orientation and fact-finding should begin even before you sit down with TOS.
Orientation may mean learning about the organization of TOS, the history of similar negotiations with TOS, or the individual styles of your counterparts. Does the organization have a good reputation? Are there any recent management shake-ups? How much power do you think your negotiating counterpart has within his or her organization?
How are negotiating issues to be addressed: individually, or as a group? How important will a written contract be? Are these people generally easy to do business with? This can be a painful, if predictable, part of any negotiation. Indeed, TOS is usually not devoted to showing you a good time. Try not to be upset by the resistance you encounter in your negotiations.
In fact, if you en- counter no resistance, this could be a signal that there is little genuine interest in meaningful negotiations.
This means finding ways to meet the needs of TOS. Reformulation of Strategies. You develop negotiating strategies when you plan the negotiation. As you gain new data, it is important to reassess earlier strategies. What is the motivation of the parties to do this deal? What strategies worked? This is the time to put your creativity and ingenuity to work. Hard Bargaining and Decision Making. Concentrate on the real needs of both sides, not just on the formal positions being taken at the negotiating table.
Here you concentrate on the determination of real objectives. How can they be overcome? What are the key issues involved? Here is the time to invent options for mutual gain that will result in a win-win outcome. Here you work out the details of the negotiation and ensure understanding.
The negotiators ratify the agreement with their respective sides. In your case, ratification may be by your boss, attorneys, or financial manage- ment. This stage is often forgotten by negotiators. But by effective follow-up, you set the stage for the next negotiation.
Use this follow-up as an opportunity for relationship building. Be sure to remind TOS that they made a good decision in negotiating the agreed-upon deal.
Exhibit outlines the stages of negotiation and the activities within each of these stages. Note that there are both task or content issues and relationship or process issues in each stage. The content issues have to do with logic or facts, while the process issues have more to do with emotions and feelings.
For example, the task aspects of stage 1, orientation and fact-finding, are to intro- duce the parties to the negotiation and to define the negotiating issues. The relationship aspects of stage 1, however, include setting the climate for the ne- gotiations and building rapport with TOS. It is important to address both task and relationship issues in order to have a successful negotiation. Planning Your Negotiation Intellectually, negotiators know that proper planning is important.
Practically, however, many negotiators would rather take a beating than write a business plan of any kind. Planning your negotiation means doing your homework. Without this vital preparation, you will concede the power that comes from making informed busi- ness decisions.
Planning your negotiation is a straightforward, four-step process that must be applied to both your side and TOS. For both sides, you must: 1 identify all the issues; 2 prioritize the issues; 3 establish a settlement range; and 4 develop strategies and tactics. Be sure to identify all the issues you can think of for both your side and TOS.
Brainstorm the issues with your colleagues—aiming for quantity, not quality—to compile your lists. Be postjudicial, not prejudicial, in this process, thereby allowing a free flow of ideas from you and your negotiating team or other relevant players.
The idea is to get a long list of every issue that could arise during the negotiations, for both your side and TOS. Issues in the stages of negotiations. Prioritize the issues for both sides in the negotiation. This will, of course, be an estimate as to the priorities of TOS. The agreement that you want under ideal conditions, and to which some degree of logic can be attached.
The agreement you really want. The agreement that can be accepted if the going gets really rough. Your bottom line. The settlement range is discussed further in the next section. Develop strategies that help you achieve your goals and that meet the needs of TOS. Strategies determine the overall approach your side plans to take.
Strategies may include which of your priorities you choose to emphasize and the overall emphasis you give to each of the subjects being negotiated. Tactics are sometimes viewed as having to do with being manipulative, play- ing games, or having a hidden agenda. That is not the intent here. Tactics may include whether to make the first offer, how much to offer, when to make concessions, and the speed at which you plan to make concessions.
Many strategies and tactics are discussed in this book—not for you to be manipulative, but rather for you to avoid being a victim and to be aware of manipulations.
For example, TOS may ask for your airline ticket when you first get to Yokohama in order to help you with further flight arrangements.
This may be an act of cour- tesy on the part of TOS, but it also provides TOS with valuable information on pacing the negotiations. TOS knows you will be there for eight days, piling up large expenses, and if TOS can be patient, you will probably be willing to agree to almost anything come the eighth day if little progress has been made. Many U. At the same time, be careful not to read too many games into every TOS action: TOS may not always be trying to manipulate you, any more than you are always trying to manipulate them.
That is, is a successful conclusion of the negotiation possible, given your settlement range and that estimated for TOS? The answer is yes, if the settlement ranges overlap. In terms of the planning steps just dis- cussed, the zone of doability is the area of agreement that is possible when the least acceptable amount is less or equal for the seller compared to the buyer—in other words, if the seller will accept an amount less than or equal to that which the buyer is willing to pay.
Exhibit illustrates negotiations that are doable. Anything beyond the least acceptable amounts is not doable because that would be a deal breaker. Remember, establish your settlement range and then estimate the settle- ment range for TOS. Will you guess wrong sometimes? Of course. The key point here is not one of precision but of empathy and understanding. It is critical to get in the mind-set of thinking about the needs of TOS, of what they may be after.
There are two important rules for effective use of the settlement range. First, prepare your settlement range before the negotiation. Second, have a logi- cal reason for moving from your above goal position to your really asking posi- tion and so on through the range.
Exhibit Doable negotiations. This is important for one key reason: It prevents you from making concessions you would not have wanted to make had not the pressures of the moment been so great during the negotiation process. This is particularly true in international negotiations. The work is piling up on your desk back at the office, and your boss wants to know the hold-up on the deal.
It would be very tempting at this point to make a deal simply to get on with your organizational and personal life. Developing a settlement range in advance helps keep you focused when these type of pressures mount. What It Takes to Close a Deal There are both logical and emotional aspects to each stage of the negotiation. With these points in mind, there are three things you must do in order to close a deal successfully: 1 satisfy the logical needs of TOS; 2 satisfy the emotional needs of TOS; and 3 convince TOS that you are at your bottom line.
Satisfy logical needs. The logical, hard-data world is a very potent one, predictable and certain. Most U. For example, TOS may like you personally, but unless the equipment you are selling does what you say it will do, you are unlikely to consummate the negotiation. However, while logic is a key part of the playing field, it is by no means the only part. Satisfy emotional needs. Although we almost always pay attention to the logical needs of TOS, we often neglect the emotional needs.
In fact, emo- tions are often more important in negotiations than logic. Think of your own reaction when negotiating with someone you really detest, compared with negotiating with someone you trust and re- spect. You can bet that there is a much better chance of successfully concluding a deal in the second situation.
Consumers routinely defy logic in their purchase decisions. So why do consumers love to pay big bucks for a Cadillac? Because of prestige and status. This is not very logical, but certain key emotional needs are being met. Convince TOS that you are at your bottom line. The final step in suc- cessfully closing a deal is to convince TOS that this is as far as you are willing to go. This has a lot to do with the emotional climate and trust that you have developed with TOS.
If you have established a positive climate of believability, then you will have a much better chance of convincing TOS that this is as far as you can or will go with your offer. Which of these three actions are the most important to concluding a negoti- ation? Remember, though, that it is not always necessary to close a deal and reach agreement with TOS. If you have to exceed your least acceptable position in order to conclude the negotiation, you may decide it is better not to make the deal.
In this chapter, we have examined key elements of the negotiating process that can be applied to negotiations: 1 the win-win, interest-based approach; 2 knowing the stages of negotiation; 3 planning your negotiation; and 4 closing the deal.
Though we will explore the differences among cultures throughout the balance of this book, these fundamentals of negotiating apply anywhere in the world.
The specific styles and methods of the negotiators involved differ signifi- cantly, however, from culture to culture. Notes 1. Ibid, pp. These forces include a common pur- pose such as profit and, gradually, common references as both parties learn to work with each other. Generally, however, there are wide differences between what constitutes effective negotiating strate- gies in the United States versus other cultures.
It is difficult enough to be persuasive and get what we want when we know the players, understand the game, and have a home-field ad- vantage. In fact, we may bleed and not even know it.
Specifically, cultural differences and their effects on international negotiations are applied to a negotiating model used for the individual countries examined. There are unique problems associated with international negotiat- ing. There are also organizational aspects that impact TOS The Other Side , such as upsizings or downsizings or the organizational clout of your negotiating coun- terpart.
Attention to these factors helps you assess the overall business and orga- nizational climate in which the negotiation is taking place. More important than any other key influences, however, are cultural factors. In this chapter we first examine the cultural factors that affect international negotiations and then ex- plore more specifically how pace, style, strategies, and other factors of the inter- national negotiation process can differ from culture to culture.
We also explore the part played by gender issues in international negotiating. Cultural Factors That Affect Global Business Negotiations There are four cultural factors that most affect negotiations among cultures: 1 use of time; 2 individualism versus collectivism; 3 role orderliness and This Author: Herb Cohen. This Narrator: Herb Cohen.
This Publisher: Macmillan Audio. Herb Cohen. Macmillan Audio. Running Time. Elizabeth Blackburn. Phelps Stokes. Mercedes: A Novel by Book 1. PDF Drive investigated dozens of problems and listed the biggest global issues facing the world today.
Let's Change The World Together. Pdfdrive:hope Give books away.Search this site. Over One Million Copies Sold! In clear, accessible steps, he reveals how anyone can you can negotiate anything by herb cohen pdf free download the three crucial variables of Power, Time, and Information to always reach a win-win negotiation. With the tools and skill sets he has devised, honed, and perfected over countless negotiations, the power of getting what you can negotiate anything by herb cohen pdf free download deserve is now a practical necessity you can fully master. History by Lee Smith. Elevate Your Life. Peter J. Elizabeth Blackburn. Phelps Stokes. Mercedes: A Novel by Book 1. Scott Fitzgerald. Sheridan Le Fanu. Fasting Day Edition by Samantha Michaels. Phillips, Ph. *Read [ePUB] You Can Negotiate Anything By Herb Cohen books books Shape Of [DOWNLOAD PDF] You Can Negotiate Anything Free Epub/MOBI/EBooks. 8kWs87yTh - Read and download Herb Cohen's book You Can Negotiate Anything in PDF, EPub, Mobi, Kindle online. Free book You Can Negotiate. You Can Negotiate Anything: The World's Best Negotiator Tells You How To Regardless of who you are or what you want, you can negotiate anything promises Herb Cohen, Get your Kindle here, or download a FREE Kindle Reading App. PDF You Can Negotiate Anything By Herb Cohen books books New Books, Good Books,. Saved from onoroff.biz Every day, you negotiate for something: prestige, money, security, love. This straight-talking guide will show you how to. You Can Negotiate Anything by Herb Cohen ePub, Download You Can The “You Can Negotiate Anything: The World's Best Negotiator Tells You How To Negotiating; Format: PDF/ePub; Size: 1 MB; Page: ; Price: Free. Download with Facebook $ $$FM PS PAGE ii How to Negotiate Anything with Anyone Be postjudicial, not prejudicial, in this process, thereby allowing a free flow of ideas from you and your negotiating team or —HERB COHEN, AUTHOR OF YOU CAN NEGOTIATE ANYTHING Emphasis on. work, interaction and involvement of the author, Herb Cohen, in thousands of negotiations. or download You Can Negotiate Anything , Our Evolving Curriculum onoroff.biz Read "You Can Negotiate Anything The Groundbreaking Original Guide to Negotiation" by Herb Cohen available from Rakuten Kobo. #1 New York Times. After upload, share files instantly via Social networks or via Email with your friends or family. In some regards those transactions and the negotiations, which I and most people I suspect usually dread — were actually kind of enjoyable. Acuff Statement Then this is the book for you. User icon An illustration of a person's head and chest. If you are interested in the business then go ahead and read this book. This new, updated edition of this long-trusted guide provides readers with the savvy they need to negotiate with finesse and ease, no matter where they are. Click download file button or Copy pdf herb cohen you can negotiate anything pdf URL which shown in textarea when you clicked file title, and paste it into your browsers address bar. Follow me on twitter lets talk. Your email address will not be published. Better World Books. Click it and That's it, you're done amigo!